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Forth, and the kingdom of Fife stretch- cheerfulness, but hushed now are those ing itself out as far as the eye can reach. / voices in the stillness of death; and the The hill on which it is situated is 822 only sounds within and around are the feet above the level of the sea, but from tinkling of the sheep-bell, or the echo of its very gradual rise it is by no means the distant footsteps of some traveller, difficult to ascend.

which, from the solemn silence that preIt is scarcely possible for the most sober- vails, may be heard approaching the minded not to be struck with the totally remains of what no doubt was different aspect which this spot presents esteemed the glory of this part of the to the dark, smoky, and densely-populated country.” city. The one is full of activity and Ata short distance from the castle is Rosenergy, the other calm and quiet; remind- lyn chapel, consisting of a small nave, and ing one of an infant sleeping on its mo a partially subterranean chamber at the ther's bosom, unconscious of all around, east end. It is thought by some, one of the and unruffled by one anxious thought or most perfect specimens of Gothic archifear.

tecture be found in this country, whilst The strikingly picturesque ruin of others consider it rather a combination of Roslyn castle is situated about seven miles Norman and the Tudor styles, exhibiting from Edinburgh, stands on a promontory the solidity of the former with the miround which the river Esk winds grace nute decorations of the latter; but, truly, fully, and from which probably its name

it would be difficult to characterise its aris derived, Ross-linnhe, signifying the chitecture, in consequence of the eccenpromontory of the waterfall.

tricity and endless variety of its parts. The origin of this castle is involved in It is said to have been built in 1440, by some obscurity. It was long the abode St. Clair, prince of Orkney, and is sixtyof the family of the St. Clairs, earls of nine feet long and thirty-four feet broad Caithness and Orkney. By some it has within. Two rows of aisles extend along been reported to have been built in the the sides of the interior, the pillars form12th century, by one of the lairds of ing which are only eight feet high, but Scotland. In 1544 it was destroyed by their workmanship is very rich; the cafire by the earl of Hertford; and in 1650 pitals are adorned with foliage, and a it surrendered to general Monk. The variety of figures; their ceilings are thrown comparatively modern mansion, which into ihe form of Saxo-Gothic arches. was erected between sixty and seventy The green ivy, in its freshness and luxuyears ago, amid the ruins of the old castle, riance, twines around portions of the dilawas inhabited by a laird, a lineal descend- pidated interior; while swallows may not ant of the St. Clairs who founded the pile, unfrequently be observed flitting to and and the last of their line, at whose death fro beneath the venerable roof. the estate descended to sir James Erskine As is the case with some of our St. Clair, the father of the present earl of churches, Roslyn has what is termed a Roslyn, who now represents the family. “Prentices' pillar,” with the same le

The exterior of this romantically situ- gendary story of the sculptor having had ated pile, with its ruined walls covered his brains knocked out by his master, with ivy and brushwood, is truly delight- for daring to execute the work in his ful to the lovers of wild and picturesque absence the possibility not being adscenery. On the different ascents to the mitted then, of the pupil equalling his castle wildflowers grow in profusion, instructor. This pillar is elegantly decoand thither, in vast numbers, the insect¡ rated, having a wreath of tracery twisted tribes resort to sip of their sweets, regard- spirally round it. At the top of another less alike of the charms of the spot, and pillar there is a bust, resembling that of the beauties that surround it. As we a woman, which has the honour of being sit gazing on the fragments of ruined appropriated to the mother of the unforwalls and fast-mouldering towers, some tunate boy; she is looking at the rething like sympathy is awakened in the presentation of her murdered son, and bosom with one of our bards, who, when weeping. standing alone a spectator of these ruins, The pavement of this sanctuary is exclaimed, “Venerable pile ! how many perhaps the most profoundly interesting have gazed on your majestic beauty, part of the building Here we tread with the same feelings of enthusiasm as on the tombs which contain the ashes I now behold you! Often have your of all the barons of Roslyn, who were, walls echoed to the melody of song and till the time of the Revolution, buried

136

FIRE ANNIHILATOR-MATTERHEARING THE GOSPEL-PASSION,

in their armour.

The monument of is only the size of a small stove, Dr. Ryan one of them is still visible—a simple kindled a fire of patent-wood, to which he outline, with a greyhound at his feet, added about half-a-pint of spirits of turaccording to a custom not unusual pentine, in an iron house; when the among the great at this period, thus to flame was at its height, he introduced a have represented on their tablets some small apparatus, holding not more than favourite animal.

two ounces of his material, and in half a Here and there are to be traced, upon minute the fire was completely extinsome of the stones with which the floor guished, and the audience expressed their of the chapel is paved, and which the approbation by loud and repeated ap; damp and mould of years have nearly plause; and it may be naturally expected obliterated, inscriptions that were once that they would be much interested in the easily read, though now they are scarcely experiment of a system involving the selegible. Many have long been utterly curity of life and property. As the apeffaced. The mourner and the mourned paratus is small, and may be kept charged, have alike mingled with their native dust. requiring only the action of a trigger, on So, too, will it be with us, and those the alarm of fire, it may be carried to any whom we hold dear. May it, then, be ours, part and immediately used. It will prove individually, to exclaim, as we rely on of vast utility in ships, as it may be the atoning sacrifice of the Son of God, placed in the hold, and on the alarm of fire, and resign ourselves to the renovating the trigger may be pulled, and the gas power of the Holy Spirit,

will

escape, thus putting a stop to the ra“ My flesh shall slumber in the ground,

vages of the devouring element.-Year Till the last trumpet's joyful sound;

Book of Facts.
Then burst my chains with glad surprise,
And in my Saviour's image rise."

S. S.

MINUTENESS OF MATTER.

Air can be rarefied so far that the conFIRE ANNIHILATOR.

tents of a cubic foot shall not weigh the

tenth part of a grain. If a quantity that Dr. Ryan gave a lecture, at the Royal would fill a space of the hundredth part of Polytechnic Institution, “ On Fire," for an inch in diameter be separated from the the purpose of noticing an apparatus rest, the air can still be found there, and lately invented by Mr. Phillips, of Blooms

we may reasonably conceive that there bury-square, called the “ Fire Annihi

are several particles present, though the lator.” Dr. Ryan first explained the weight is less than the seventeen-hunnature of combustion and of fire. After dredth million of a grain.—Mechanics' referring to the phlogiston theory of the Magazine. earlier chemists, and the more modern views of Lavoisier and others, the lecturer proceeded to prove, by a number of ex

THE RIGHT WAY TO HEAR THE GOSPEL, periments, that combustion, under all circumstances, is the result and companion Some people are very squeamish about of chemical action. A considerable por the delivery of different ministers, who tion of his lecture was afterwards devoted preach the same gospel. Suppose you to the consideration of supporters and were attending to hear a will read, where non-supporters of combustion, or to those you expected a legacy to be left you, conditions which are necessary either to would you employ the time when it was maintain fire, or to prevent its action; he reading in criticising the manner in more especially pointed out the effect of which the lawyer read it? No, you volumes of free nitrogen or free carbonic would not; you would be giving all ear acid upon the flame of coal gas; and, after to hear if anything was left to you, and showing that combustion instantly ceased how much it was.

This is the way I in an atmosphere containing but a small would advise you to hear the gospel.percentage of these gases, he proceeded to Rowland Hill. explain that Mr. Phillips used a mixture of coke, nitre, and sulphate of lime, with a little water; the products of its ignition were,

PASSION. principally, free nitrogen, carbonic acid, He submits to be seen through a miand water vapour. To illustrate the office croscope, who suffers himself to be caught of the apparatus, which for a large house in a fit of passion.-Lavater.

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

GEORGE III.

ENGLISH HISTORY.

distance from his troops. At the end of

June, Howe embarked his forces, and In America, the hostilities continued sailed to the Chesapeak, to attack Philathrough the winter season. During the delphia, contriving to waste two months Christmas holidays, Washington sur on shipboard, in which interval his solprised a body of Hessians ať Trenton, diers were enfeebled, and the Americans taking a thousand of them prisoners; had time to strengthen themselves. and after severe struggles he recovered Washington was defeated at Brandywine, the Jerseys, the English general having but was allowed_time to retreat. In at first cantoned his troops very un.

this action, La Fayette fought in the advisedly, and then having continued American army. He had joined the most unaccountably inactive till the end American army shortly before, with a of March, 1777. During the actions few adventurers, evidently with the conthat followed, Lee, an American ge- nivance of the French government; and neral, who had formerly been a co the arrival of a wealthy and noble folonel in the English service, was taken reigner was highly acceptable. In this prisoner. Howe did not treat him as battle, La Fayette received a wound, for à deserter, though urged to do so, but the cure of which he remained some refused to exchange Lee or to release weeks at a Moravian settlement. Here him on his parole, and kept him as he received kind attentions, and good prisoner in a private house.

Con- advice; but instead of listening to such gress ordered that six of the British peaceful counsels, he wrote to the French officers should receive the same treat- ministry, and the commandant of Marment, and put colonel Campbell, who tinique, recommending attacks upon the had gone by mistake into Boston har- | English colonies, both in the east and bour, after the British forces had been west, with French forces under American withdrawn, into confinement in a loath- colours. On September 27, Cornwallis some jail, treating him with much harsh entered Philadelphia ; but it was the end ness until Washington interfered. of November before the fleet and army

In July, the Americans took prisoner could overcome the obstructions and general Prescott, in Rhode island, who fortifications of the Americans, so as to had carelessly taken up quarters at a command the river Delaware. Washing

M

ton dared not withdraw into winter of re-inforcements from Europe; yet by quarters, and leave a wide district open the time Burgoyne capitulated, his adto the officers of Howe. He butted his vance was not more than thirty miles from troops in an entrenched camp on the Saratoga. When informed of the surSchuykill

, about twenty-five miles from render, he, of course, returned to New Philadelphia, so as to keep the command York, after having caused much loss of the country, while Howe quietly re- and damage to the district through which mained inactive in the last-named city. he passed. Unhappily, this had fallen

The campaign in the north had been chiefly on the unoffending inhabitants ; disadvantageous to the British. Carle- but the Americans could not justly comton was unwisely superseded by Bur- plain, for their forces treated with much goyne, a good officer, but wholly unac- violence all whom they considered to quainted with the country and its modes be attached to the British interests. The of warfare; he was sent to carry out a undisciplined state of their troops, and plan devised by the king, to march the exasperation of political feelings may southward from Crown Point with a account for this, while it does not excuse considerable force. His first movements | it. Whatever disgrace may attach to were successful; he reached the Hudson Burgoyne for his failure, he certainly deriver on July 30, but the latter part of serves credit for the order and discipline his route had been very injudiciously he maintained during his advance, and chosen, and had ch exhausted his for repressing the ferocity of his Indian army. Here Howe ought to have united allies, though he thereby disgusted many or communicated with him; but he had of them. The position of the Indians proceeded to Philadelphia. Burgoyne placing them in a state of hostility with soon found that he could reap no advan- the back settlers of the American states, tage from his position, while the British by whom they have invariably been army suffered materially in repeated driven westward, and exterminated, efforts to advance; but he crossed the made them naturally incline to an alHudson, and occupied the heights of liance with the British; but their unSaratoga. There he remained till Oc- disciplined proceedings rendered them tober 7, by which time his supplies were undesirable even as allies. The result exhausted, and many of his Indian allies of this year's campaign as a whole, was were withdrawn. He looked for co to convince reflecting minds, that the operation from New York, while Gates, American states could not be conquered Arnold, and other American commanders, by a country beyond the Atlantic; subhad nearly surrounded his position. After jugation was impossible. The public some actions, in which general Fraser, attention was so absorbed by the affairs the best of the English officers, fell, of America as to take little notice of Burgoyne attempted to retreat, but with proceedings in the still more important out success; when finding himself with East Indian possessions, where events a force reduced to 3,500, without pro- were at this time passing, that aftervisions, and surrounded by 19,000 Ame- wards excited deep interest. These must ricans, a capitulation was agreed upon be noticed in a continuous form at a on the 16th, by which the English forces later period. surrendered their arms, but were to be al Parliament assembled in November, lowed to proceed to Boston, and embark 1777, when all parties continued much for England, engaging not to serve again in the same state. The king still spoke of till exchanged, the Canadians being al- America as to its return to allegiance. lowed to return to Canada. General The earl of Coventry advised that the Gates was not confident in his own independence of America should be at troops, and knew what Burgoyne did once recognised, predicting, however, not, that Clinton was advancing up the the ultimate declension of Britain, and Hudson; he, therefore, readily for that America would become the seat of warded the capitulation, granting the empire. Chatham found fault with all honours of war, with several other little that had been done ; and while fancying punctilios, on which Burgoyne laid much that America could yet be kept depenstress; but, contrary to the terms agreed dent on Britain, he recommended the upon, Congress, much to its disgrace, cessation of hostilities and the trying to ordered the English troops to be re- restore matters by negotiation. Such a tained as prisoners. Clinton's advance course, it was very evident, would only had been delayed by the tardy arrival strengthen the patriot leaders of the

colonies, and France was now evidently | the advancement, if not the realization, determined to seek for some advantages of many of their visionary schemes and from the present state of affairs. It was erroneous devices. France determined also manifest that the opposition at home to force Spain to join the warfare, rather sought their own personal ad- though such would endanger her vast vancement than cared for the real merits colonies; and the French ministry were of the contest, though it is impossible here ready to proceed to hostilities, the results to detail the intrigues of parties at this of which must be ruinous to a nation with period, many of which had chiefly in an annual deficit in its finances of above view the bringing Chatham into office a million of pounds sterling, during a again. In the course of debate, Chatham state of peace. Nothing but the severest painted in strong colours the evils of financial proceedings enabled them even employing the Indians as allies; but on to prepare for hostilities, while the probeing reminded that he set the example secution of the war hastened the national by employing them during the late war, bankruptcy that precipitated the revohe attempted to deny the fact. When it lution, and brought on the awful train was proved, his friends vainly attempted of events that followed. to draw a distinction between the two This year's session in England is marked contests, to excuse the great orator for by a bill for removing some of the most having formerly done what he now found oppressive laws against Papists. The preit expedient to censure. Burke painted sent state of the contest with America their atrocities with the utmost power of required efforts to increase unanimity at his eloquence, in a speech of three hours home; but some changes in favour of the and a half. Of the evils resulting from commerce of Ireland were limited by the employing the Indians, there can be no resistance of the English mercantile indoubt; the only excuse that could be terest. The most stirring incident during offered was, that, unless it had been the session was the last public appeardone by the British commanders, the ance of the earl of Chatham. The duke Americans would have sought their aid, of Richmond and others, considering and would have stimulated them to bar- that the union of France with America barities, instead of attempting to restrain rendered the contest still more hopeless, them. Two things now began to be evi on April 7 moved for the dismissal of dent—that if any attempt should be ministers and the cessation of hostilities. made at pacification, the independence Chatham, oppressed with sickness, spoke of America must be recognised, and that against any such concession, calling the present ministry would not listen to rather for war with France, against such a proceeding, though lord North, which country he retained the prejudices following the plan of making concessions of national enmity. On subsequently when too late, advanced so far as to pro- rising to answer the duke's reply to his pose to give up the right of taxation, and speech, the exhausted statesman fell to treat with the Congress as a body backwards, and was borne from the recognised by law. The spirit of the house in a state of insensibility. He nation also was in favour of continuing was carried home, and from that time the contest, although it appeared that, on continued to decline till May 11, when he the whole, the British cause had lost expired. A public funeral, and a moground, while the American had become nument at the national expense, were stronger.

voted to honour the memory of this In February, 1778, France concluded statesman. A pension of 4,000l. per a treaty with the American colonies, annum was settled on his heirs, and a which, it was evident, would lead to a large sum voted to pay his debts. Chatwar with England; the depressed and ham was a great orator, and, too often, agitated state of France rendered this allowed the opportunities he possessed most unadvisable. Louis xvi., destitute for good to evaporate in words; at the as he was of ability, saw that it was an same time, he was personally honest, evil measure; but the French nation and did not seek to aggrandize himself were eager to support the revolting co at the expense of the nation. In these lonies, and such a proceeding exactly respects, he was superior to Walpole ; suited the plans and desires of the philo- but, unhappily, he was a war minister; sophical party becoming influential in his notions were founded on false ideas that country, who saw in the success of of glory, thus the English nation suffered the American efforts for independence, deeply from many of his measures,

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