Oldalképek
PDF
ePub
[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

PANTOLOGI A.

U. V.

U.00, the path letter and 5th vowel of

V AB

V AC

VA'CANCY. s. (from vacant.) 1. Empty , our alphabet, is formed in the voice space; vacuity (Shaks.).

2. Chasm ; space by a round configuration of the lips, and a unfilled (Watts). 3. State of a post or emgreater extrusion of the under one than in ployment when it is unsupplied (Aylife): 4. forming the letter o, and the tongue is also Time of leisure ; relaxation; intermission ; more cannulated. The sound is short in curst, time unengaged (Watts). 5. Listlessness; must, tun, tub; but is lengthened by a final e, emptiness of thought (Wotton). as in lune, tube, &c. In some words it is ra. VA'CANT. a. (vucant, Fr. vacans, Lat.) ther acute than long; as in brute, flute, lule, 1. Empty; unfilled; void (Boyle). 2. Free; &c. It is mostly long in polysyllables; as in unencumbered; uncrowded (More). 3. Not union, curious, sc. but in some words it is filled by an incumbent, or possessor (Swift). obscure, as in nature, venture, &c. This let. 4. Being at leisure ; disengaged (Clarendon). ter in the form of V, or v, is properly a con- 5. Thoughtless ; empty of thought; not busy. sonant, and as such is placed before all the T. VÅCATÉ. v. n. (vaco, Latin.) 1. To vowels; as in vacant, venal, vibrate, &c. annul; to make void ; to make of no authority Though the letters y and u had always two (Nelson). 2. To make vacant; to quit possounds, they had only the form v till the be- session of. 3. To defeat; to put an end to ginning of the fourth century, when the other (Dryden). form was introduced, the inconvenience of ex- VACATION. s. (vacatio, Latin.) 1. Inpressing two different sounds by the same termission of juridical proceedings, or any other letter having been observed long before. In stated employments; recess of courts or senates bumerals V stands for five; and with a dash (Cowell). 2. Leisure; freedom from trouble added at top, thus V, it signifies 5000. In or perplexity (Hammond). abbreviations, amongst the Romans, V. A. VA’LCARY. s.

s. (vacca, Latin.) A cow. $1001l for veterani assignati; V. B. viro bono; house ; a cow-pasture (Bailey). V. B. A. viri boni ertiiratu; V. B. F. vir lonce VACCINATION, in medicine, the process fidei; V. C. vir consularis; V. C. . F. vale of inoculating a person with the virus of the disconjur charissime, feliciter ; V. D. D. voto ease, called vaccina, or cow-pos, in order to dedicatur; V.G. verbi gratia ; Vır. Ve. virgo render him incapable of being infected by the vestalis ; VL. videlicet ; V. N. quinto nona- small-pox; thus employing a milder disease as TUM.

an antidote to a severer. VABRES, a town of France, in the depart

This may be regarded as one of the most im. ment of Aveiron. Though an episcopal see though strendously opposed and decried by in.

portant discoveries of modern times, and albefore the revolation, it is little better than a

dividuals in most countries, has met with all village ; but has some manufactures of serges, the support and countenance from all the godimities, and cottons. It is seated at the con- vernments of every part of the globe to which it fluence of two equall rivers that fall into the is entitled. Under the article INOCULATION We Tarn, 30 miles S. E. of Rodez, and 32 E. of have entered at some length into the history and Alby. Lon. 2. 55 E. Lat. 43. 57 N. praxis of this admirable preservative, and have VOL. XI.-PART II.

B

cursorily examined into the testimonies in its ble of producing these diseases. We ought like. favour. That article, however, has been written wise to inquire whether the source from which for more than three years from the present time: the cow.pox matter was derived was infected in the course of which period vaccination has with any foreign ferment. And finally, as in all been tried upon a much more extended scale, ages and all circumstances of life various disand its effects have been examined with still eases appear which cannot be assigned to any closer precision, and we are happy to add, with known cause, those which succeed vaccination more philosophical coolness. One of the best ought, in order to be ascribed to it, to show such papers that has been given to the world by the a character of affinity with each other as to indiFrench Imperial Institute is an article upon cate their common origin, and offer in their dethis subject, drawn up by three of its brightest velopment a connexion more or less sensible ornaments, M. M. Berthollet, Percy and Halle, with the primitive effeets of vaccination to which and read August 17, 1812. It has since been they succeed. published, on account of its national, or rather It is therefore requisite to admit, in opposition its universal, importance in the Moniteur, and to the advantages ascribed to vaccination, those we cannot forbear presenting our readers with observations only which are well authenticated, the following translation of that part of it which and the details of which are sufficiently complete chiefly examines and replies to the general obser- to enable us to appreciate their value. vations which in different countries have been Nevertheless, if the number of facts alleged advanced in opposition to it. These obser- were very considerable, as it would be impossivations are put in the form of six successive que ble in such a case to ascribe them to mere ac. ries; each of which receives its proper answer. cident, they would in a great measure supply

1.-Do the fever and the general eruption the place of exact observations, and would pro. which follow the inoculation for the small-pox, duce a certain degree of probability in their but do not appear after vaccination, constitute a favour. necessary purification of the system, the want of By attending to all these particulars we shall which may lead to dangerous consequences ? endeavour to give an answer to the question

II.--Do the facts observed demonstrate that proposed. the cow-pox, introduced into the system, is of We shall begin with the observations which such a nature as to produce eruptions, or ac- have been given as proofs that there exists discidents, which ought to be ascribed to the diffi- eases wbich owe their origin to vaccination. culty, the imperfeclion, or the want of erup- Among those that have been pubiished, or tions?

that have conje to our knowledge, there are very III.-Is the virus introduced by vaccination few which, considered separately, have the cha of such a nature as to produce immediately, racter of exact observation; and not one posthat is, duripg the development of the natural sesses the conditions necessary to fix the relaeffects of vaccination, fatal accidents?

tion of the malady noticed to the previous vacThe first two of these queries are answered in cination. the affirmative; the third in the negative. We Out of eleven observations that have been must pass by the train of argument, though particularly communicated to us, and which, highly ingenious and conclusive, in order to from the precision with which the facts were notice, in a somewhat detailed manner, the three announced, as well as the nature of the evidence questions by which these are succeeded, and of those who communicated them, seemed to dewhich are of considerably more practical im- serve particular attention, we have had it in portance.

our power to verify seven. All of these seven IV.-Is the virus intraduced by vaccination of were formally and authentically denied by ocular such a nature as to produce, even after its opera witnesses, most assiduous, and consequently best tion has terminated favourably, diseases, more acquainted with the facts, either from situation, or less severe, and which may even prove fatal? or the interest which attached them to the child

The solution of this question is difficult, be- ren who were the subject of these observations. cause our investigation is of necessity interrupted We can only suppose that the persons, who comby a great number of uncertainties,

municated to us these observations, persons well It is certainly dithcult to establish, that a virus, informed, and without any motive to deceive, introduced into the body, and capable of render- were led into error by false reports concerning ing it inaccessible to the small-pox contagion, things which they had not been able to see with has not the power of producing any other change their own eyes. After this it was natural for us which can affect the health. Such a consequence to suspect the authenticity of the other facts can only be the result of a number of observa- which had come to our knowledge by the same tious, so great, that its disproportion with the means, though we had it not in our power to oontrary observations must prevent us from as- verify them by actual inquiry. cribing them to any thing else but causes abso- Afact reported to the medical society of lutely unconnected with the introduction of the Grenoble has been mentioned, and it is advanced virus.

in the work of M. Cliappon, as a proof of the bad But the observations in support of a contrary effects of vaccination. A child after vaccinaopiaion must be equally difficult to obtain. If tion had the face covered with pimples, which a disease appear after vaccination, in order to were succeeded by scabs that gave the face a show that it can be ascribed to no oiber cause, hideous appearance. This was followed by an we ought to know what was the state of the sub- anasarca, and the caso ended fatally. Notwithject before vaccination, and whether his consti- standing the want of details in tbis case, it is tutional or hereditary temperament did not pre- easy to perceive in it that eruption so familiar to pare him for those maladies which have taken infauts, and known by the vulgor name of croxie place. We must be able to show that after vac- laiteuse (crusla lactca). Its appearance after vacsination he has not been exposed to causes capų. cination does not prove thai it had any thing in

common with it. We frequently see the sup: true cow-pox, an observation of more importance pression of such eruptions produce very severe than has always been supposd. symptoms without the presence of vaccination, The facts furnished by the Bibliotheque Bric com nonly either in the head or the organs of tannique afford us the following results. We respiration.

shall notice those only which have been announced T'he little exactness in the other observations with so much precision as to give us an exact idea which we might examine, renders it impossible of the case. to admit them as proofs in a discussion like the In 1800 M. Odier announced at Geneva that present.

out of 1500 persons vaccinated not one accident We have met with strangers to the art of me had occurred. dicine, especially parents, who have assured us Dr. Anderson writes, in 1804, from Madras, to that their ehildren, after having been carefully the Jennerian Society of London, that the num. and suecessfully vaccinated, experienced several ber of vaccinations performed by the British and inconveniences, sometimes eruptions, soinetimes Indian physicians on English, Portuguese, Brah1 weakness of health to which they had not been min, Malabar, Gentoo, Mahometan, Half-cast, subject before vaccination. These symptoms in Pariah, Maratta, Canadian, and Rajaput subsome cases obliged them to have recourse to jeets, amounted to 145,848 ; and that in none of blisters and issues in order to remove them. It these cases had a single accident been observed. was impossible for us to make ourselves so well This enumeration was made in 1803, and pubacquainted with the origin of these facts as to lished in 1804 by the government of Marras. be able to judge how far the allegations were In 1806 the Jennerian Society of London, in well founded; but without rejecting them alto- consequence of rumours propagated respecting getber, we may say that all the children, and vaccination, as if it occasioned various dreadful even adults, that we have had an opportunity of diseases till that time unknown, was induced to vaeeinating ourselves, or that we have seen vac. make an exact examination. The result of this, cinated, never exhibited any such symptom. comprehended in twenty-two paragraphs, gives

There is a circumstance which we observe in paragraph twenty-one the following statefrequently, and to which we ought to attend ment: the disease produced by vaccination is in partieularly, while discussing the present ques- general slight, and without bad consequences. tion. We often see an accidental impression, an The cases contrary to this conclusion are in exotien, a fall, occasion the development of a small number, compared with the total number disease, to the nature of which that oecasional of cases, and may very naturally be ascribed to eause is obviously a stranger. The snfull-pox the constitution, or the peculiar disposition of itself often appears after such aceidents, and in the individuals who have exhibited the excepether cases they have occasioned violent fevers tions. or other maladies to which a disposition seems In 1807 the Society of Surgeons in London pubto have pre-existed, and only required an ocea- lished another report, more precise; and in sion to call it into action. Is it not also possi- which they show the greatest reserve with reble, tbat in eireumstances which we can neither spect to the consequences to be drawn from the determine nor foresee, vaccination may give oc. results obtained. We have already said, in casion to the appearanee of a malady without speaking of the eruptions following vaccination, being its cause, and thus bring about what any that there were only sixty-six examples of them other commotion would have done, experienced among 164,361 persons vaccinated; twenty-four at the same time? In that case there would be erysipelatous affections only were observed out Bothing in sueh diseases connected with vaccina. of the number sixty-six: and among these we tion, or proceeding from the cow-pox virus. must reckon the only three deaths which follow

Since then there is not one of the observa- ed vaccination, and which have already been tious, collected hitherto, which can of itself noticed. All this is the result of the answer of serve as a proof of the opinion which we are 426 correspondents, whose testimony was solicitexamining, it remains for us to see whether ed by a circular letter. taken collectively their number is such, com- In another place mention is made of the same pared with that of the cases whose history is erysipelatouscases, probably comprehended under known, as to give some solidity to the objec- the twenty-four which have been just mentioned. tion.

The disease is ascribed to the too great depth of The collections to which we have had re- the incisions, by means of which the cow-pos course already, in order to give an answer to the matter had been pushed too far below the skin, other questions, will still furnish us with numer- instead of being introduced between it and the ous facts to satisfy this.

epidermis. Other observations may give some The correspondence of Paris, besides the facts probability to this presumption, which we shall which we have noticed above, furnishes the fol- not attempt to examine here. lowing: erysipelas in the arm in the proportion At Aleppo, the English consul, Mr. Barker, bas of one case to 10,000; suppurations continuing succeeded in familiarizing the people to vaccinain the cow-pox, in the proportion of one to tion : 600 were vaccinated in 1806, without ob10,000; and these are only local accidents, par serving a single disagreeable accident to follow. ticular to the parts on which the inoculation In 1803 the Spanish government undertook the was performed. As to general accidents they noble and generous enterprise of sending out an have only been observed when from particular expedition, which terminated in 1806. The sole objects the number of punctures has been very object of this expedition was to convey to all mach increased, as when they have amounted to their American and Asiatic possessions the new 30, 40, 50, or even to 60. These accidents have means of preserving the colonies against the been fever and convulsions, which did not in ravages of the small-fox. any instance terminate fatally. The cases cel. A certain number of children was embarked, lected by the society of Paris are all such as who were to be vaccinated successively during bare exhibited the characteristic progress of the voyage. In this manner the cow-pox virus

tion.

was transported to the Canaries, to Porto Rico, duce results that seem diametrically opposite to to the Caraccas, to Gaatimala, to New Spain, to each other. These effects do not appear contrethe Philippine islands, to Macao, to Canton, to dictory, bat because they vary according to the the islands of Visaye, where a hostile nation was disposition and the strength of the subjects who so struck with this act of generosity on the part receive the virus, and according as the essential of the Spaniards as immediately to lay down phenomena of the malady, which this virus occa. their arms. The colonists of St. Helena, whesions, take place with more or less violence, rebad hitherto refused the cow-pox matter from gularity, or perfection. The fact exists. The their own countrymen, received it froin the only conclusion, which in our opinion can be Spaniards. The provinces of Terrafirma, of drawn, is that these effects depend upon general Carthagena, of Pera, &c. likewise received the laws, which it is not our business here to erCow-pox matter, which was even found indigen- plain, and that they must not be regarded as a ous near Puebla-de-los-Angeles, not far from specific property, which, if it did exist, could not Valladolid, and in the Caraccas. The viceroy give birth to consequences so different. of New Spain has attested that out of 50,000 in- We must, nevertheless, acknowledge, that howdividuals vaccinated in his government not a ever striking the observations may be, they de single unfavourable accident had come to his not lead to a striking demonstration. Hence, knowledge.

when any person says that inoculation favours At Echaterinoslaff, the Duke of Richelieu, the cure of a particular disease, we must restrict governor of the Crimea, assures us that out of the proposition to mean nothing more than a F065 individuals vaccinated in six months, not a simple expression of the particular fact observed. single accident intervened, except one, in which A person was afflicted with a chronic disease, the small-pox appeared the day after vaccina- from the knowledge of the character and pro

gress of which we could not expect a speedy Finally, in 1810, M. Curioni, minister of the cure. This person was inoculated, and soon interior at Milan, wrote to M. Sacco that as far after the cure took place in a manner quite un as bis information went, not a single instance had expected. Such is the fact. To draw as a covoccurred of small-pox appearing upon indivi- sequence that the inoculation was the cause of duals that had been vaccinated, and no disease the cure, it would be necessary that analogous whatever had foldewed the process.

instances had either always, or at least very freIt appears to us that the small number of un- quently, occurred; otherwise the coincidence favourable observations which have been collect. may have been entirely accidental. ed, and among which we must not include those Examples are given of obstinate, even heredi. not well authenticated, and which depend upon tary ulcers, of caehexy, scurvy, eruptions, &c. assertions destituie of proof, disappear entirely cured in consequence of inoculation. The chabefore such a mass of facts,

racter of those who have attested these facts V.—Supposing that inoculation for the small. We readily admit them; but to prove that these

does not permit us to call them in question. pox has the advantage of sometimes favouring advantages ought to establish a preference for the cure of certain chronical diseases, is this ad- inocuiation with the small-pox matter over vacvantage pecaliar to it, and ought it to ensure it a preference over vaccination?

cination, it would be at least necessary to prove

that vaccination has not been followed by equally This question does not present fewer difficulties fortunate consequences; but the very contrary than the preceding.

fact results from the observations collected by In speaking of the diseases, the origin of which the correspondence of Paris, and from several has been referred to vaccination, we might have cases announced in the works extracted by the observed that the same reproach had been thrown authors of the Bibliotheque Britannique. The against the small-pox, and that not without some variety of facts announced by the correspondence reason. Not to mention former authors suze of Paris is so great ibat it might even lead to pected of partiality, we shall satisfy ourselves some scepticism. We shall therefore only notice with referring to the authors of the Bibliotheque those relations which are given by persons enBritannique, who have given sonie instances. titled to draw our attention, and those the details Other facts of an opposite nature have been al- of wbich contain some interesting particulars, leged, showing that inoculation is an opoch of Without attempting to draw any consequences an advantageous clange in the constitution, hy from then, we shall simply present a short statethe cessation of various infirmities, and the confrmation of the health and constitution of the Mr. Richard Dunning, of Plymouth, in a work person inoculated.

published in London in 1800, entitled Some Oh. These advantages have been ascribed either to servations on Vaccination, &c. when speaking of the perfection of the eruption, and the regularity the effects of vaccination on the health, says, that of the general commotion which accompanies it, he has generally observed the health improved or regarded as the efect of the suppurations pro- by vaccination, and he gives two instances: the longed in the place where the inoculation was first a young girl, daughter of a consumptive performed; a phenomenon which has been imi- father, subject to vomiting, and continually lalated by means of a supplementary suppuration, bouring under oppression, with a cadaverous induced by blisters when the circumstances of aspect spotted with livid blotches. After a forthe case seemed to require it. It has been con- tunate and successful vaccination, she in a few ceived that these evacuations destroyed the causes months recovered the best possible state of of the diseases formerly existing, and in the health. The second example was a child two midst of which the small-pox had made its ap- years of nge, naturally delicate, recovering from pearance.

an inflammation of the breast, but still pale, very Observers will not consider it ns a contradic- feeble, and oppressed. This child, after vacci

to say that a commotion excited by the in- nation, speed recovered strength, acquired a troduction of the matter of small-pox may pro. good habit of body, a free respiration, and is

ment.

« ElőzőTovább »