account what they were but by their many of the Lord's people being asenemies; for none but such in any his- sembled together in Swan Alley, in tory have made any relation or narrative Coleman-street, (a public place where of them. ... This godly, honour- saints have met many years), as they able woman, perceiving that Mr. Canne were waiting upon the Lord in prayer was a baptist, and not in her way, but a and other holy duties, on a sudden, the step beyond her light, caused the public marshal of the city with several other place to be made fast, whereby they were officers rushed in with great violence prevented to come in. Then he drew upon them. Old brother Canne was forth, with abundance of people, into a then in the pulpit, and had read a place green thereby, and sent for Mr. Fowler, of scripture, but spoken nothing to it. the minister that lived there, to speak The scripture was Numbers xvi. 20— with him, who was a holy good man, of 26. Now he perceiving that they came great worth for his moderation, zeal, in at both doors with their halberts, sincerity, and a sound preacher of the pikes, staves, &c., and fearing that there gospel, as he approved himself since; might be some hurt done to the Lord's who, accordingly, came to Mr. Canne in poor and naked [unarmed] people, he the Green, where they debated the busi- desired the brethren and sisters to be all ness of reformation, and the duty of quiet, and to make no stir: for his part, separation from the worship of anti-he feared them not, but was assured the christ, cleaving close to the doctrine of Lord would eminently stand by them. our Lord Jesus and his instituted wor- Whilst he was thus speaking to the ship. To which Mr. Fowler agreed that people, exhorting them to patience, one there was great corruption in worship, of the officers (breaking through the and that it was the duty of people to crowd) came furiously upon him, and reform from corruptions in worship; but with great violence plucked him out of he said that at that season, as things the pulpit, and, when he had so done, stood, it was not a time, because they hurled him over the benches and forms should not be suffered, and should be in a very barbarous manner. Some cast out of all public places. Mr. Canne | brethren, being nigh, endeavoured to answered, that mattered not; though i save brother Canne from falling, but they could not get a public place or such the rage of the officers was such, that conveniences, they should hire a barn to they fell in upon him, although, through meet in, keeping the worship and com- mercy, he had not much hurt by it." mands of the Lord as they were delivered Seven others were taken into custody to us. Thus Mr. Canne continued near because they spake against the cruelty two hours in the Green, asserting and with which he was treated, saying aloud, proving the duty of the people to the “He is an old man, do not use him so Lord in such a day; after which they barbarously.” When brought before the took leave of each other and departed." mayor, he was asked what he thought

The degree of religious liberty which of the present government. His answer Cromwell was able to obtain from his was, “ For the present government I am coadjutors for some classes of dissidents not satisfied with it. But this conwas very incomplete, and Canne was cerneth not you, neither shall I speak one of those who suffered from presby now anything to you about it; but if terian intolerance. In a narrative, pub you send me to the Protector, I shall lished anonymously in 1658, it is stated, tell him what I think concerning this that, “Upon the first day of the second government. For I have a great deal month, commonly called April, 1658, I to say to his face, if in such a way as this I may be brought before him. But both; yet this I leave behind me, under for you, Sir, this is not our business my hand, i.e. 'The free grace and goodnow.” Some who were present were ness of God hath more abundantly apheavily fined and imprisoned, but Canne peared towards me, in preserving me, a and others were a few days afterwards poor worm, from this last apostacy, than called up and discharged.

from the former ; not only because of Treatment which he received in York- the two I take it to be the worst, but shire led him to say, in a work entitled because the latter hath much more of * The Time of the End,” “Upon my the depths of Satan than the former banishment from Hull (for what cause had.' As for their jeerings and reI know not, there being nothing to this proachful speeches, I pass them by : day made known to me), I went apart, such things are not new to me. The as Elias did, into the wilderness; and, | bishops and their creatures used them; as I lay under hedges, and in holes, my yet this much I must say for the bisoul in bitterness breathed forth many shops, which I cannot say for them, so sad complaints before the Lord, 'It is far they showed us fair play, not to imenough, O Lord, take away my life, for prison us, nor banish us, till they had I am not better than my fathers. Often told us the cause, and heard what we and sore wrestlings I had with my God, could say for ourselves ; yea, and would to know his meaning and teaching, un seem to be very pious and charitable in der this dispensation, and what further taking great pains with some of us, to work, whether doing or suffering, he bring us out of error, as they called it; had for me, his poor old servant, being but I have found no such piety and now again banished, after seventeen charity with these men ; for I have been years' banishment before.” Again, he banished now almost two years, but says, “I am an old man, and expect never to this day knew the cause of it, Every day to lay down this earthly taber- neither hath there been any thing laid nacle; it will be, therefore, some com- to my charge. I shall not speak of the fort to me whensoever my change sad calamity which they have brought comes, that I have left a public testi- since upon my family, by the death of mony against this present apostacy, as my dear wife and daughter.” formerly I did against the other : and, | It is believed that the labours and howsoever, I bless the Lord that he trials of this faithful confessor termihath kept my feet out of the snare of nated at Amsterdam, in the year 1667.



BY THE REV. JOHN WENGER OF CALCUTTA. NEARLY half a century has elapsed | time the number of nominally Christian since the formation of the first native natives connected with the various churches in Bengal,* and at the present protestant missions in this country, largest proportion belonging to the two | the painful alternative of abandoning societies of the church of England and either the heathen population or the to the baptist denomination. These native churches. If all their resources native Christians and the churches (or are expended upon the latter, the forcongregations) which they form are the mer must be left to their hopeless confruits of missionary labour, and as such dition. If the heathen population they afford with many drawbacks mat- continues to be the object of missionary ter for gratitude and joy. Nevertheless, efforts, the native churches must be when we look at them from a particu- left to shift for themselves. The conlar point of view they must occasion sideration of this state of things clearly the deepest anxiety to the friends of shows that for the sake of the heathen missions. With certain trilling excep- it is absolutely necessary that the native tions these churches are to this day churches should become self-sustaining, dependent upon Europe (and America) both as to pecuniary supplies and as to both for pecuniary supplies and for the ministry. pastors. Some of them, indeed, have The fact, however, is that they are native pastors or pastoral assistants not yet self-sustaining. A commenceunder various names, but these are ment has indeed been made in this trained to their work at the expense of direction, but the result is almost too distant societies and by the labours of minute to be taken into account. And their agents. Now this state of things, this is the state of things now at the at first unavoidable, is one which if close of half a century! It therefore continued and extended beyond certain becomes us to look the evil in the face, limits cannot fail to become disastrous and to inquire into the reasons why in the extreme. If the churches in our native churches are not yet selfcrease in number and extent without sustaining? Such an inquiry may lead becoming self-sustaining, they will and to the discovery of the root of the evil must become an insuperable barrier to and of the means of eradicating it. the evangelization of the country, by The following pages are intended as a absorbing all the pecuniary supplies, contribution to such an inquiry. The and claiming all the energy and time writer deeply feels the importance of of the missionaries sent to these shores the subject, but is conscious that his from distant lands. If the income of ideas regarding it are fragmentary and our missionary societies admitted of a crude. His object is to draw the attenperpetual increase, and if the numbers tion of others to the coming danger, of missionaries coming from Europe or with a view to solicit their advice as to America were unlimited, no danger | the means by which it may be avoided. could be apprehended. But the re- In blending together the supplies of sources of our missionary societies are money and men it may appear to many not inexhaustible; they have their that two very heterogeneous things are limits, and it may be questioned coupled together. In practice, howwhether some of them are not even at ever, both are closely connected. So present worked to their full extent. long as our missionary societies have to The highest point of productiveness supply the money, they will and must which they can reach being once at- also control the expenditure, and this tained - which probably will be the again implies the choice and control at case with most of them after the lapse least, and probably also the training of of a few more years—the various socie- the men, who are supported by that ties will one after another be driven to expenditure. And on the other hand

probably exceeds twelve thousand, the • It appears that some native Christians, the frait of Kiernander's labours, existed even at a or Portuguese descent, and rapidly assimilated with Euch earlier period. But probably they were at it, so that they never formed a distinct native elice amalgamated with a congregation of English church.

hurches the total. Foly be so

the temporal condition, in other words | the native churches. Having been in the poverty of our native Christians, is existence only a few years they are apparently the chief cause why the feeble in numbers, feeble in intelligence, churches are dependent upon extrane- and feeble in Christian character. From ous aid as to men. Take away the churches in a state of infanoy it would salaries now paid by our missionary be absurd to expect that they should societies to native preachers, from what be self-sustaining. They obviously source are they to obtain the means of need to be supported and guided by support? And without the means of others up to a certain time. It would support it is idle to expect that any be especially foolish to expect the new native preachers or pastors will be converts belonging to such churches to found unless an entirely new system of be at once fit for teachers and pastors, superintending churches can be devised. But whilst some churches are still in The writer does not deny the possibility their infancy, there are others of twenty of such a new system being discovered ; and thirty and more years' standing, but as he is not aware of any having composed of pretty large numbers, as yet been discovered that appears which certainly ought no longer to be practicable, he feels justified in blending found in the same helpless and depeninto one the two questions regarding dent state in which they were involved money and men.

at the commencement of their existence. The idea which it is intended to ex- 2. The temporal condition of native press by the term self-sustaining is, Christians is one of the greatest obstathat the native churches should be able cles the churches have to contend with. from their own resources to support If we assume the total number to their pastors, to defray the cost of | amount to 12,000 it may safely be said erecting and keeping in repair their that 11,000 of them live mainly from places of worship and school-rooms, the proceeds of their land. The men and to meet all the minor current ex- are ryots or peasants in humble cirpenditure connected with them and cumstances. If their land be what is with the relief of poor members. With called poitrik, the rent they have to pay regard to men the churches will be self for it is about one rupee per biga, but if sustaining when they shall themselves the land be what is called tiká the rent furnish, train up, and appoint pastors is generally two rupees. A biga of land and teachers without requiring any (of which nearly three make an English further official superintendence on the acre) yields on an average a produce part of missionary societies.

worth five rupees. After deducting It appears to the writer that the from this sum the expense of implecauses which have hitherto retarded the ments, bullocks, seed-corn, and the rent, development of this self-sustaining cha- a small profit remains in the case of racter of the churches may conveniently poitrik land, but the cultivation of tika be classed under two heads,-first, land generally proves a loss, submitted those inherent in the very nature of to from custom and ignorance because things and which do not admit of an holding a little land is regarded as a immediate remedy; and secondly, those sign of respectability. Other occupathat are adventitious, and might, thero tions, such as fishing, &c., may in fore, be avoided or remedied within a favourable years keep the poor family short time.

above water, but many are involved in 1. Among the first class must be a constant struggle for existence. Seedmentioned the recent origin of many of corn can be borrowed at an interest of fifty per cent (in kind) for eight months, have been very few if any artizans and the interest on money is generally three respectable shop-keepers. Such might, pice a month for a rupee of sixty-four even if they had lost all, be set up pice, and frequently it is even higher.* again at a moderate cost, provided they Taking all these things into considera- could find customers as readily as tion and allowing also for the endless before. extortions practised by zemindars, it | As time advances and the number of must be evident that the condition of native Christians increases their temnative Christian ryots is very discou- poral condition will gradually be imraging. Only those who hold about proved. Only it will be necessary to seven or more bigas of poitrik land can keep this object steadily in view. At get along with any comfort, the rest, the present time the poverty of our nawho are the great majority--are con- | tive brethren imposes heavy burdens stantly struggling with dire poverty. upon missionaries and their friends. A

Among the remaining thousand of convert who was well off before loses native Christians the majority are ser- everything, and unless the missionary vants. These labour under the disad- support him for a time he must starve. vantage of not having had an early The Christian ryots also look to the training for their work, and of being missionary for aid in times of famine, disliked and indirectly persecuted by inundation, murrain, &c. Great efforts their fellow servants, whilst their mas should, therefore, be made to qualify ters are apt to expect more from them native Christians for all manner of as Christians than they do from others. work by which an honest livelihood

Some native Christians have obtained may be earned. If youths could be respectable situations as writers, &c., apprenticed to artizans, or obtain situabut these also labour under similar dis- tions in government and commercial advantages. Lucrative situations are offices, the cause of the native Chrisheld by very few if any.

tians would gain much. And if those Those who are employed as preachers in the rural districts could be supplied and teachers form a distinct class, and with land at the lower rate of rent, they cannot be taken into account here, as also would be saved from misery and the question under consideration is why wretchedness. they are not supported by the native As things are at present it is very churches ?

clear that it is not in the power of naTwo circumstances have hitherto tive Christians to do much for the supmaterially retarded the improvement in port and extension of religion. the temporal condition of native Chris- 3. A third evil which cannot be tians : one is, that those who were remedied at once is the inadequate suppretty well off before have in conse- ply of the means calculated to aid the quence of their conversion been de- development of the Christian character. prived of all their property and com- It is cheerfully admitted that public pelled to begin the world afresh : the worship is everywhere maintained and other is, that among the converts there that preaching is generally connected

with it. The Lord's supper also is ado For information concerning some of these de

ministered pretty regularly. These tails the writer is indebted to an esteemed friend divine ordinances are useful to the who can speak from an experience of twenty years. members of the churches, and they are The correctness of it will be confirmed by erery one who is acquainted with the real state of things

enjoyed by them. But it will hardly in most districts.

be denied that the discourses delivered

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