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The Tomb or Hauso
Guide to the Department of Antiquitiet, Sec,
four additional slabs (similar to those received from the Ambassador), on the site of the world-famous mausoleum itself; several colossal statues, and portions of such; together with a multitude of architectural fragments of almost every conceivable kind; columns—mostly broken into many portions—with their bases, capitals, and entablatures, in sufficient quantity and diversity to warrant a faithful restoration of the ancient building by a competent hand.
From Didyme (near Miletus), from Cnidus, and from Branchidae, many fine archaic figures in the round ', some colossal lions; and an enormous number of fragments both of sculpture and of architecture; with many minor antiquities, various in character and in material, were successively sent to England. Mr. Charles Newton's narrative of his adventures at Budrum, and at several of the other places of his sojourn and excavations, is very graphic. Some portions of it are worthy to be placed side by side with the best chapters of the earlier narrative of the explorations and travelling experiences of Latard.
Of the most famous trophy of Mr. Newton's first mission to the East—the mausoleum built by Queen Artemisia— the discoverer has himself more recently given this brief and striking descriptive account:—
This monument, writes Mr. Newton, in 1869, was erected 'to contain the remains of Mausolds, Prince of Caria, about B.C. 352. It consisted of a lofty basement, on which stood an oblong Ionic edifice, surrounded by thirty-six Ionic columns, and surmounted by a pyramid of twenty-four steps. The whole structure, a hundred and forty feet in height, was crowned by a chariot-group in white marble, in which probably stood Mapsoltjs himself, represented after his translation to the world of demigods and heroes. The peristyle edifice which supported the Bomiii,
.,.,„. ... i-i-i Chap. IV.
pyramids was encircled by a frieze, richly sculptured in high- Akothkr relief,' and so on. The frieze thus mentioned is that of a*°h1olo. which the twelve slabs were, as already mentioned, given "^jokm by Lord Stratford De Rkdcliffe in 1846, four exhumed by Newton himself in 1857, and one more purchased from the Marchese Serra, of Genoa, in 1865. This piecemeal acquisition of the principal frieze, by dint of researches spread over twenty years, is not the least curious of the facts pertaining to the story. But the annals of the Museum comprise ten or twelve similar instances of ultimate reunion, after long scattering, of the parts of one whole. They tell of manuscripts (made perfect after the lapse of a century, it may be) as well as of sculptures, thus toilsomely recovered. But the Greco-Amazonian battle-frieze was not the only frieze of the famous mausoleum. The external walls of the 'cella' had two other friezes, of which Mr. Newton succeeded in recovering several fragments, some of them of much interest. And the mausoleum was profusely adorned with sculptures in the round as well as with the richly carved figures in relief, both high and low, which encircled (in all probability) the very basement, as well as the peristyle and the cella portions of this marvellous structure. Lions in watchful attitudes (' lions guardant,' in heraldic phrase) stood here and there, and the fragments of these which have been recovered testify to their variety of scale, as well as to their number. The names of five famous sculptors of the later Athenian school—Scopas, Leochares, Bryaxis, Timotheus, Pythios—who were employed upon the decoration of the tomb itself, or upon the chariot-group, have been recorded, and it would seem that each of four of these had one side of the tomb specially assigned to him. 'The material of the sculpture was Parian marble, and the
whole structure was richly ornamented with colour. The tomb of Mausolus was of the class called by the Greeks //croon, and so greatly excelled all other sepulchral monuments in size, beauty of design, and richness of decoration, that it was reckoned one of the "Seven Wonders of the World."'
While La.Yard was unearthing Nineveh; Fellows bringing into the light of day the long-lost cities of Lycia; and Charles Nkwton restoring, before men's eyes, this funereal marvel of the ancient world, which had long been known (in effect) only by dim memories and traditions; Dr. Nathan Davis, in his turn, was exhuming Carthage and Utica. All these distinguished men were labouring, in common, for the enrichment of our National Museum, within a period of some twenty years. Three of them may be said to have been busied (in one way or other) with their self-denying tasks contemporaneously.* If we take into the account the variety, as well as the intrinsic worth, of the additions thus made to human knowledge; above all, if we duly estimate the value of those links of connection between things human and tilings divine, which are the Book in,
pp. 108-187 i aud ftaseim.
or Nathan Pavib At Cakthaoe Ahd L'tica.
• I shall not, I trust, be suspected of a want of gratitude for the eminent and most praiseworthy efforts of Mr. Davis—one of the many Americans who have returned, with liberal profuseness, the reciprocal obligations which all Americans owe to Britain (for their ancestry, and also for the noble interchange of benefits between parent and offspring, prior to 1776; if for nought else), if I venture to remark that the abovewritten passage in the text has been inserted somewhat hesitatingly, as far as it concerns the dale of the Carthaginian explorations. No index; no summary; no marginal dates; conflicting and obscure dates, when any dates appear anywhere; no introduction, which introduces anything; scarcely any divarication of personal knowledge and experiences, from borrowed knowledge and experiences; such are some of the difficulties which await the student of Carthage and her Remains. Yet the book is full of deep interest; its author is, none the less, a benefactor to Britain, and to the world.
. . . Cl.:ip. IV.
most essential characteristic of some of the best of these Anothk* acquisitions, it may well be said that the annals of no Abchiol... mnseum in the world can boast of such an enrichment as °,5TSAND
this, by the efforts of the travellers and the archaeologists of one generation. And all of these explorers are—in one sense or other—Britons.
On one incidental point, I have to express a hope that the reader will pardon what he may be momentarily inclined to think an over-iteration of remark. If I have really adverted somewhat too frequently to the connection which many of these rich archaeological acquisitions, of 1842-1861, present between the annals of man and the Book of God, I have this to plead, in extenuation: Certain writers pass over that connection so hurriedly as almost to lose sight of it. And we live in an age in which some of our own countrymen—some of those among us to whom the Creator has been most bounteous in the bestowal of the glorious gifts of mind and genius—have even spoken of our best of all literary possessions as 'Jew-Records,' and ' Hebrew old-clothes.' Those particular expressions, indeed, were employed long before the arrival of the Assyrian Marbles. But I think I have seen them quoted since.
Among the spoils of Carthage and of Utica which we owe The tpom. to Dr. Nathan Davis, are many rich mosaic pavements, of Thagk And the second and third centuries of our era, and a multitude utica' of Phoenician and Carthaginian inscriptions, extending in date over several centuries. And it must be added that many of the antiquities, and more especially of the mosaics, excavated under Dr. Davis's instructions at Utica, were found to possess greater beauty, and a more varied interest, than most of those which were disinterred by him
Book in, from amidst the ruins of Carthage. Many of these, like Ahothei some of the choice treasures of Nineveh, are, in a sense, still buried—for want of room at the British Museum adequately to display them. The reader may yet, but too fitly, conceive of some of them as piteously crying out (in 1870, as in I860)—
'Here have ye piled us together, and left us in cruel confusion,
0TM..* ros- Many other liberal benefactors to the several Archaeological AfoMKB. Departments of the Museum deserve record in this chapter. Ga"«ime But tne record must needs be a mere catalogue, not a orAim- narrative: and even the catalogue will be an abridged one.
Foremost among the discoverers of valuable remains of
Greek antiquity, subsequent to most of those which have
now been detailed, are to be mentioned Mr. George Dennis,
who explored Sicily in 1862 and subsequent years; and
Captain T. A. B. Spratt, who travelled over Lycia and the
adjacent countries, following in the footsteps of Sir Charles
Bprett.nd Fellows, and who enjoyed the advantage of the company
Jwi in and co-operation of two able and estimable fellow-travellers,
«""£'''"' Edward Forbes and Edward Thomas Daniell, both of
c°b?2"\ wh°m> nke their honoured precursor in Lycian exploration,
pawim. have been many years lost to us.
The antiquities collected in Sicily by Dennis, at the national cost, were chiefly from the tombs. They included very many beautiful Greek vases, a collection of archaic terra-cottas, and other minor antiquities.* Some of the
* These were given to the Museum by Lord Russell, as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Lord Russell was one of the earliest of