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and bolder style than on the others, and appear to be the Bookiit,
<~u i-n> 1 l • Chap. IV.
most ancient. Should any difference of date occur on this Axothke monument, I should decide that this is the commencement Abchiolor original inscription upon it. Elplhul
'This, which I must consider as a very important monument, appears to have on the north-east side a portion of its inscription in the early Greek language; the letters are comparatively ill cut, and extremely difficult at such an elevation to decipher; seizing favourable opportunities for the light, I have done my best to copy it faithfully, and glean from it that the subject is funereal, and that it relates to a king of Lycia; the mode of inscription makes the monument itself speak, being written in the first person. Very near to this stands the monument, similar in form, which I described in my last Journal as being near the theatre, and upon which remained the singular bas-reliefs of which'I gave sketches. On closer examination I find /w<rM/0/M these to be far more interesting and ancient than I had E'"r^"in
o Jaxa Minor,
before deemed them. They are in very low relief, re- *e-/s»4 sembling in that respect the Persepolitan or Egyptian bas- Appendix. reliefs.
'I have received,' continues Sir Charles Fellows, 'from Mr. Benjamin Gibson of Rome a letter in reference to these bas-reliefs: his interpretation of this mysterious subject appears far the best that I have yet heard; and from finding the district to have been in all probability the burial-place of the kings, it becomes the more interesting. Mr. Gibson writes—" The winged figures on the corners of the tomb you have discovered in Lycia, represented flying away with children, may with every probability be well supposed to have a reference to the story of the Harpies flying away with the daughters of King Pandarus. This fable we find related by Homer in the Odyssey, lib. xx, where they are
stated to be left orphans, and the gods as endowing them with various gifts. Juno gives them prudence, Minerva instructs them in the art of the loom, Diana confers on them tallness of person, and lastly Venus flies up to Jupiter to provide becoming husbands for them; in the mean time, the orphans being thus left unprotected, the Harpies come and 'snatch the unguarded charge away.' Strabo tells us that Pandarus was King of Lycia, and was worshipped particularly at Pinara. This tomb becomes thus very interesting; which, if it be not the tomb of Pandarus, shows that the story was prevalent in Lycia, and that the great author of the Iliad derived it from that source. With this clue, we have no difficulty in recognising Juno on the peculiar chair assigned to that goddess, and on the same side is Venus and her attendants; upon another is probably represented Diana, recognised by the hound. The seated gods are less easily distinguished. In the Harpies, at the four corners of the tomb, we have the illustration of those beings as described by the classic writers."'
Every lateral excursion made by Sir C. Fellows, and by his companions in travel, added to his collection rich works of sculpture, and not a few of them added many varied and most interesting minor antiquities. But I must needs resist all temptation to enlarge on that head, though the temptation is great. The twentieth and subsequent chapters of the book itself (I refer to the collective but abridged 'Travels and Researches in Asia Minor of 1852) will abundantly repay the reader who is disposed to turn to them—whether it be for a renewed or for a new reading.
When the task of removal had to be undertaken, difficulties of transport were found, under certain then existing circumstances, to be graver obstacles than had been Turkish prejudice or Turkish apathy at an earlier stage of the busi- Btm>k in,
( |i >n TV
ness. The maritime part of the duty had been entrusted to Anothm Captain Graves, of H.M. Ship Beacon. The captain left i«H*o'ohis ship at Smyrna; sailed with Fellows for the Xanthus, g"TM0^ in a steam-packet; but omitted to provide himself with the needful flat-bottomed boats. When they reached the site
of the marbles which were to be carried away, Captain FeuTMry. Graves said he would not have any of the stores taken down the river j that stores must be obtained from Malta; and that he would take all hands away from the diggings at the beginning of March. The reader may imagine the reflections of the eager discoverer at this sudden check,— mj.,VP.uo, coming, as it did, at the very beginning of the burst. "BM
He took a solitary walk of many hours, he tells us, before he coidd resolve upon his course of action. He saw before him, to use his own words, 'a mine of treasure.' He had willing hands to work it; ample firmans to stave off opposition; nothing deficient save boats and tackle. A year might possibly pass in awaiting them from Malta; and, meanwhile, the ignorance of the peasantry, the indiscreet curiosity of travellers, or the sudden growth of political complications, might destroy the enterprise irrecoverably.
He resolved, in his perplexity, to construct by his own exertions tackle that would suffice for the removal to the coast; got native help in addition to the willing efforts— however unscientific—of the honest sailors of the Beacon; succeeded in getting a portion of the precious objects of his quest to the waterside, before the arrival of the ship; and got them also strongly cased up. Then he sailed with Graves for Malta. The worthy captain resigned the honourable task—to him so unwelcome—into the hands of Admiral Sir Edward Owen. A new expedition started from Malta at the end of April, and brought away seventyBoo*in, eight cases of sculpture in June; leaving the splendid but Anothh too-heavy 'winged-chariot-tomb' — so called by its discoverer in one place, and elsewhere called 'horse-tomb/ but since ascertained to be the tomb of a Lycian satrap
named Paiafa; it is adorned with figures of Glaucus, or perhaps of Sarpedon, in a four-horse chariot—until next
Arrival: England or The First
Series Of year. The seventy-eight cases were brought to England Marbles, by the Queen's ship Cambridge in the following December. On the fourteenth of May, 1842, the Trustees of the British Museum thus recorded their sense of Mr. Fellows' public services:—' The Trustees desire to express their sense of Mr. Fellows' public spirit, in voluntarily undertaking to lend to so distant an expedition the assistance of his local knowledge and personal co-operation. They have viewed with great satisfaction the decision and energy evinced by Mr. Fellows in proceeding from Smyrna to Constantinople, and obtaining the necessary authority for the removal of the marbles; as well as his judicious directions at Xanthus, by which the most desirable of the valuable monuments of antiquity formerly brought to light by him, together with several others, of scarcely less "hTnLt,, interest, now for the first time discovered and excao/tkeBritish vated, have been placed in safety, and—as the Trustees HMny.iaw. have every reason to hope — secured for the National
(Appendix to - _ ,
This hope was more than realised. It shows the energy of Fellows, that the expedition to Lycia of 1841 was his third expedition. In 1846 he made a fourth. It was rich in discovery ; but I fear somewhat exhausting to the strength of the explorer. He lived a good many years, it is true, after his return to England; but how easily he yielded when a sudden attack of illness came, I shall have the pain of showing presently.
In the interval between his third and fourth journeys to Book Hi, Lycia, Fellows married a fellow-townswoman, Mary, the A„Ln only daughter of Francis Hart, of Nottingham, but she gar°tmmou>. survived the marriage only two years. A year after her oI8«AI,D
. . Explorers.
death he married the widow of William Knight, of Oatlands, in Herts. On his final return from Lycia he was knighted, as a token (and it was but a slender one) of the public gratitude for his services. At the close of October, I860, a sudden attack of pleurisy invaded a toilworn frame. On the eighth of the following month he died, at his house in Montagu Place, London, in the sixty-first year of his age.
Taken broadly, the sculptures of Lycia may be described Date A»d as works which range, in date, from the sixth century before o^TM*TM our Lord to almost as manv centuries—if we take the "0B""EP,TS
minor antiquities into account—after the commencement of Ltcian
the Christian era. Some of them rank, therefore, amongst the earliest original monuments of Greek art which the British Museum possesses; and date immediately after the casts of the sculptures of Selinus and of iEgina.
On some of the myths and on the habits of Lycian life there has been a sharp controversy, of the merits of which I am very incompetent to speak. Narrower and narrower as my limits are becoming, I yet feel it due to a public benefactor, who can no longer speak for himself otherwise than by his works, that in these waning pages he should be permitted to supply at least a part of his own explanatory comments upon the story of his discoveries. It is one of enchaining interest to the students of classical antiquity.
The famous 'Harpy Tomb,' thinks Sir Charles Fellows, is to be enumerated as among the most ancient of the remaining works of the 'Tramilse,' or ' Termite,' mentioned both