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Certain Jews, of an enterprising and practical turn of mind, had bought, in block, a whole hill-full of venerable marbles, in order to have an inexhaustible supply of new tombstones close at hand. In another part of the suburbs of the town, the walls of a large corn-field turned out, on close examination, to be built of thin and flat stones, of which the inner surface was formed of richly-patterned mosaic, black, white, and red. From that day, the traveller, wheresoever he journied, was a scrutinising archaeologist. And the traveller, thus equipped for his work, was busied, two months afterwards, in exploring that most interesting part of Asia Minor (a part now called 'Anadhouly'), which includes Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia, Phrygia, Pisidia, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Caria; and much of which was never before trodden— so far as is known, and the knowledge referred to is that of the best geographers in England, discussing this matter expressly, at a meeting of the Geographical Society—by the feet of any European.*

On the eighteenth of April, Mr. Fellows found himself in the romantically beautiful, but rugged and barren, neighbourhood of Antiphellus. The ancient town of that name possessed a theatre, and a multitude of temples, grandly placed on a far-outjutting promontory. For miles around, the rocks and the ravines were strewn with marble fragments. The face of the cliff, which, on one side, overhangs the town, was seen to be deeply indented with rock-tombs, richly adorned. They contained sarcophagi of a special form. The lid of each of them bore a rude resemblance to Bookiii, a pointed arch. It sounds at first almost grotesquely, in Another the ear of a reader of Mr. Fellows' Journal of 1839, to GTML°ou, hear him speak of Lycian tombs as 'Elizabethan' in their Oi»t»a»u

Tnr. r%


ill AntiriiELi.ua

ANn ITS VICINITY. 1838, April.

* And in which not a few readers will be sure to feel all the more interest, because of its sacred associations, when they call to mind those first-century travels of certain famous travellers who, 'after they had

passed throughout Pisidia, came to Pamphylia, and when they

had gone through Phrygia, . . . and were come to Mysia, assayed to go into Bythinia, but the Spirit Buffered them not;'—having work for them to do in another quarter.

T» • I -111 ■ EXPLORERS.

architecture. But, in the sense intended, the term is strictly apposite. If the reader will but glance at one of Excursion, Mr. Fellows' many beautiful plates of those rock-tombs, vc{£* >e' he will see at once that they look not unlike the stonemullioned windows of our own Tudor age.

But the discovery which eclipsed all Mr. Fellows' previous researches was that of the ancient capital of Lycia —Xanthus. Next in importance to that was his disinterment of Tlos. He saw the ruins of other and, in their d;iy, famous towns. It was plain that he had now before him a fine opening to add to the stores of human knowledge in some of its grandest departments—artistic, historical, biblical. But, in 1838, he had not the most ordinary appliances of minute research. He went back to England; found (as Layard was also destined to find, very shortly afterwards) only a very little encouragement, at official hands ; much more than a little, however, in his own reflections and foresight. In 1839, he went back to Lycia, Further taking with him George Scharf, then carefully described ,"N as 'a young English artist,' now widely known as an v ",y eminent archaeologist. Fellows explored. Scharf drew. TM Early in 1840, ten Lycian cities were added to the previous Parts or discoveries. Each of them contained many precious works is^a. of ancient art.

In order to effectual excavation, and in order-also to the safety of what was found from destruction by Turkish barbarities, the Sultan's firman was essential. The difficulties were much like those which, as I have had occasion to show

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Book III, Chap. IV. Anothkr Group Of ArchjeoloOists And Explorers.

See Book II,

chap. 2;

pp. 382, tcqq.

The ReSearches At Cadtahda,


The ExcaVations AT Xanthus.

in 'Book Second/ lay in the path of Lord Elgin, under similar circumstances, more than forty years earlier. By Lord Ponsonby's zealous efforts, they were at length surmounted. At the earnest instance of the Museum Trustees, the Government at home seconded the exertions of their ambassador at Constantinople; and this combination of endeavour made that feasible which the best energies of Sir Charles Fellows, single handed, must have utterly failed to secure.

The reader will not, I incline to think, regard as an instance of overmuch detail, if I here add—for instructive comparison with the terms of the official letter procured by Lord Elgin—the words in which Rifaat Pasha, in June, 1841, describes the antiquities, the removal whereof was to be graciously permitted. In 1800, Lord Elgin (after enormous labour) was empowered to 'take away any pieces of stone, from the Temples of the Idols, with old inscriptions or figures thereon.' Now—in 1841—the 'pieces of stone' are described as 'antique remains and rare objects.' The schoolmaster, it will be seen, had been at work at Constantinople.

The explorations at Cadyanda, at Pinara, and at Sidyma, richly merit the reader's attention, as an essential part of our present subject. But happily Sir Charles Fellows' books are both accessible and popular. Here we must hasten on to Xanthus, and Sir Charles' story must now be told in his own expressive and graphic words:

'Xanthus certainly possesses some of the earliest Archaic sculpture in Asia Minor, and this connected with the most beautiful of its monuments, and illustrated by the language of Lycia. These sculptures to which I refer must be the work of the sixth or seventh centuries before the Christian era, but I have not seen an instance of these remains having been despoiled for the rebuilding of walls; and yet the Book in, decidedly more modern works of a later people are used as Asothkk materials in repairing the walls around the back of the ^"^"'o. city and upon the Acropolis: many of these have Greek oimA,"> inscriptions, with names common among the Romans. The whole of the sculpture is Greek, fine, bold, and simple, bespeaking an early age of that people. No sign whatever is seen of the works of the Byzantines or Christians.

'To lay down a plan of the town is impossible, the whole being concealed by trees; but walls of the finest kind, Cyclopean blended with the Greek, as well as the beautifully squared stones of a lighter kind, are seen in every direction; several gateways also, with their paved roads, still exist. I observed on my first visit that the temples have been very numerous, and, from their position along the brow of the cliff, must have combined with nature to form one of the most beautiful of cities. The extent I now find is much greater than I had imagined, and its tombs extend over miles of country I had not before seen. The beautiful gothic-formed sarcophagus-tomb, with chariots and horses upon its roof, of which I have before spoken and have given a sketch of a battle-scene upon the side, accompanied with a Lycian inscription, is again a chief object of my admiration amidst the ruins of this city. Of the ends of this monument I did not before show drawings, but gave a full description. Beneath the rocks, at the back of the city, is a sarcophagus of the same kind, and almost as beautifully sculptured; but this has been thrown down, and the lid now lies half-buried in the earth. Its hog's-mane is sculptured with a spirited battle-scene. Many Greek inscriptions upon pedestals are built into the walls, which may throw some light upon the history of the city; they are mostly funereal, and belong to an age and Book m, people quite distinct from those of the many fine Lycian

Chap. IV.

Anothkk remains.

Amuioio- ''^wo of my aays nave been spent in the tedious, but, I >•«* A!"L trust, useful occupation, of copying the Lycian inscription from the obelisk I mentioned in my former volume that I had seen: this will be of service to the philologist. Having, with the assistance of a ladder, ascended to a level with the top of the monument, I discovered a curious fact: the characters cut upon the upper portion are larger and wider apart than those on the lower, thus counteracting the effect of diminution by distance, as seen from the ground. As the letters are beautifully cut, I have taken several impressions from them, to obtain fac-similes. By this inscription I hope to fix the type of an alphabet, which will be much simplified, as I find upon the various tombs about the town great varieties, though of a trifling nature, in the forms of each letter; these varieties have hitherto been considered as different characters. This long public inscription will establish the form of all the letters of an alphabet, one form only being used throughout for each letter: if this should be deciphered, it may be the means of adding information to history. The inscription exceeds two hundred and fifty lines.

'It is to be regretted that the obelisk is not perfect; time or an earthquake has split off the upper part, which lies at its foot. Two sides of this portion only remain, with inscriptions which I could copy; the upper surface being without any, and the lower facing the ground: its weight of many tons rendered it immoveable. I had the earth excavated from the obelisk itself, and came to the base, or probably the upper part of a flight of steps, as in the other obelisk-monuments of a similar construction. The characters upon the north-west side are cut in a finer

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