eighth, some of them, however, to the earlier part of the Bookiii, seventh centuries B.C. They now occupy the most cen- Amothkb tral of the Assyrian Galleries in the British Museum. The S^l^omonuments of Kouyuniik and of Khorsabad are probably °,8t.sai,d


but little anterior to the supposed date (625 B.C.) of the destruction of Nineveh. These are exhibited in galleries adjacent to the 'Nimroud Central Saloon.' To describe only a few of them in connection with the interesting circumstances of their respective disclosures would demand another chapter. A word or two, however, must be given to one among the earlier discoveries (October, 1846), and to one among the latest of those made (in the spring of 1851), whilst Mr. Layard himself remained in the neighbourhood of Mosul.

At Nimroud many trenches had, in those early days, been Discovert opened unprofitably. Mr. Layard doubted whether he ought to carry them further. Half inclined to cease, in this direction, he resolved, finally, that he vrould not abandon 184«.

J i-iii, October

a cutting on which so much money and toil had been spent, (foundin until the result of yet another day's work was shown. 'I ^"g^t mounted my horse,' he says—to ride into Mosul—' but had moaai)scarcely left the mound when a corner of black marble was u',"Z'<Jil,, uncovered, lying on the very edge of the trench.' It was ^j^" part of an obelisk seven feet high, lying about ten feet below the surface. Its top was cut into three gradines, covered with wedge-shaped inscriptions. Beneath the gradines were five tiers of sculpture in low-relief, continued on all sides. Between every two tiers of sculpture ran a line of inscription. Beneath the five tiers, the unsculptured surface was covered with inscriptions. These, as subsequent researches have shown, contain the Annals of ShalManeskr, King of Assyria, during thirty-one years towards the close of the ninth century before our Lord. The tribu


Bo<TM in, taries of the great monarch are seen in long procession,

Anotkicb bearing their offerings. In the appended cuneiform record

Arc«*olo- °f these tributaries are mentioned Jehu, 'of the House of

E«tmorrm Omri,' and his contemporary Hazael, King of Syria. Well

md.,m. may the proud discoverer call his trophy a 'precious relic'

We now leap over more than four eventful years. Mr. Layard is about to exchange the often anxious but always glorious toils of the successful archaeologist, for the not less anxious and very often exceedingly inglorious toils of the politician. He will also henceforth have to exchange many a pleasant morning ride and many a peaceful evening 'tobaccoparliament' with Arabs of the Desert, for turbulent discussions with metropolitan electors, and humble obeisances in order to win their sweet voices. Just before he leaves Mdsul come some new unearthings of Assyrian sculpture, to add to the welcome tidings he will carry into England.

Th« Dm- He found, he tells us—in one of the closing chapters of

his latest book—that to the north of the great centre-hall four new chambers, full of sculpture, had been discovered.

nil. On the walls of a grand gallery, ninety-six feet by twenty

three, was represented the return of an Assyrian army from a campaign in which they had won loads of spoil and a long array of prisoners. The captured fighting men wore a sort of Phrygian bonnet reversed, short tunics, and broad belts. The women had long tresses and fringed robes. Sometimes they rode on mules or were drawn—

atmnatk by men as well as by mules—in chariots. The captives

"edlt^Xs)" were the men and women of Susiana. The victor was

Pp. 682-5M. Sennacherib.

In several subsequent years—1853, 1854, 1855, when most Englishmen were intently acting, or beholding with

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suspended breath, the great drama in the Crimea—a famous Book Hi,

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compatriot was continuing the task so nobly initiated by Anotm**

Austen Layard. Sir Henry Rawlinson (made by this JTM^".

time Consul-General at Baghdad) carried on new excava- 0I3TSASD

°' Explorers.

tions, both at Nimroud and at Kouyunjik. In these he was ably assisted by Mr. W. K. Loftus, as well as by Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, the helper and early friend of Layard, and (in the later stages) by Mr. Taylor. Another obelisk, with portions of a third and fourth; thirty-four slabs sculptured in low-relief; one statue in the round; and a multitude of smaller objects, illustrating with wonderful diversity and minuteness the manners and customs, the modes of life and of thought, as well as the wars and conquests, the luxury and the cruelty, of the old Assyrians, were among the treasures which, by the collective labour of these distinguished explorers, were sent into Britain. Another 'recension,' so to speak, of the early Annals of Sennacherib, King of Assyria, inscribed upon a cylinder, was not the least interesting of the monuments found under the direction of Sir Henry Rawlinson, whose name had already won its station—many years before his consulship Early at Baghdad—beside those of Grotefend, of Burnouf and of Lassen, in the roll of those scientific investigators by whose closet labours the researches and long gropings cu of the Riches, the Bottas, and the Layards, were des- Tiom. tined to be interpreted, illustrated, and fructified for the world of readers at large.

For it is not the least interesting fact in this particular and most richly-yielding field of Assyrian archaeology—that several men in Germany;—more than one man in France;—and one man, at least, in Persia, had been working simultaneously, but entirely without concert, at those hard and, for a time, almost barren studies which


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were eventually to supply a master-key to vast libraries of inscriptions brought to light after an entombment of twentyfive hundred years.

Scarcely smaller than the debt of gratitude which Britain owes to Mr. La Yard and to Lord Stratford De Redcliffe, for the Marbles and other antiquities of Assyria, is the debt which she owes to the late Sir Charles Fellows for those of Lycia. Nor ought it to be passed over without remark that the admirably productive mission to the Levant of Mr. Charles Newton seems to have grown, in germ, out of the applications made at Constantinople on behalf of Sir Charles Fellows. In that merit he has but a very small share. The merit of the Lycian discoveries is all his own. He has now gone from amongst us,—like most of the benefactors whose public services have been recorded in this volume. How inadequate the record; how insufficient for the task the chronicler; no one will be so painfully conscious, as is the man whose hand—in the absence of a better hand—has here attempted the narrative. The Museum story has been long. What remains to be said must needs be put more briefly. But because Sir Charles Fellows has been so lately removed from the land he served with so much zeal and ability, I shall still venture to claim the indulgence of my readers for a somewhat detailed account of the work done in Lycia, and of the man who did it.

In one respect, it was with Charles Fellows as with Austen Laiard. A youthful passion for foreign travel, and what grew out of that, lifted each of them from obscurity into prominence. But Layard achieved fame at a much earlier age than did Sir Charles Fellows. Sir Charles was almost forty before his name came at all before the Public. Layard was already a personage at eight and

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twenty. This small circumstantial difference between the Book in, fortune of two men whose pursuits in life were, for a time, Another so much alike, deserves to be kept in mind, on this account: Sir Charles lived scarcely long enough to see any fair appreciation of what he had accomplished. Even those whose political sympathies incline them to a belief that Mr. Layard's official services will never suffice to console Englishmen for the interruption of his archaeological services, hope that he may live long enough to enjoy a rich reward for the latter in their yearly-increasing estimation by his countrymen at large. They will delight to see the fervid member for Southwark utterly eclipsed in the fame of the great discoverer of long-entombed Assyria.

Sir Charles Fellows was the son of Mr. John Fellows, thk


of Nottingham. He was born in 1799. In the year 1837, Asumixor, he set out upon a long tour in Asia Minor. Archaeological discovery no more formed any part of a preconcerted plan in Mr. Fellows' case than it did, two or three years afterwards, in Mr. Layard's. Both were led to undertake their respective explorations in a way that (for want of a more appropriate word) we are all accustomed to call 'accidental.'

In Februaiy, 1838, he found himself at Smyrna. After a good deal of observation of men and manners, he betook himself to an inspection of the buildings. He soon found jomat that not a little of the modern Smyrna was built out of the *""TMaH ruins of the Smyrna of the old world. Busts, columns, j*TM"}TM,,? entablatures, of white marble and of ancient workmanship, pp8,«qq were everywhere visible, in close admixture with the recently-quarried building-stone of the country and the period. But not only had the old marbles been built into the new edifices; they had been turned into tombstones.





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