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Chap. III. BookLOVERS AND PUBLIC
substance of books, as of taste to appreciate beauty in Book II, their outward forin.*
The solidity of those three per cents., and the plodding perseverance of their owner, were in time rewarded by the BENEFACcollection (1) of a library containing only four thousand five hundred volumes, but of which probably every volume -on an average of the whole—was worth, in mercantile eyes, some three pounds ; (2) of seven portfolios of drawings, still more choice; (3) of a hundred portfolios of prints, many of which were almost priceless; and (4) of coins and gems—such as the cameo of a lion on sardonyx, and the intaglio of the Discobolos-worthy of an imperial cabinet.
The ruling passion kept its strength to the last. An agent was buying prints, for addition to the store, when the Collector was dying. About four days before his death, Mr. CRACHERODE mustered strength to pay a farewell visit to the old shop at the Mews-Gate. He put a finely printed Terence (from the press of Foulis) into one pocket, and a large paper Cebes into another; and then with a longing look at a certain choice Homer, in the course of which he mentally, and somewhat doubtingly, balanced its charms with those of its twin brother in Queen Square,-parted finally from the daily haunt of forty peripatetic and studious years.
Clayton Mordaunt CRACHERODE died towards the close of 1799. He bequeathed the whole of his collections to the Nation, with the exception of two volumes of books. A polyglot Bible was given to Shute BARRINGTON, Bishop
*“Or must I, as a wit, with learned air
Like Doctor Dibdin, to Tom Payne's repair,
Hold ! cries Tom Payne, 'that margin let me measure,
Mathias, Pursuits of Literature.
Book II, of Durham ; a princeps Homer to Cyril Jackson, Dean of
: Christ Church. Those justly venerated men were his two LOVERS AND doorest friends
THE COLLECTOR OF THE LANSDOWNE MANUSCRIPTS.
The next conspicuous donor to the Library of the British Museum was a contemporary of the learned recluse of Queen Square, but one whose life was passed in the thick of that worldly turmoil and conflict of which Mr. CRACHERODE had so mortal a dread. To the Collector of the •Lansdowne Manuscripts,' political excitement was the congenial air in wbich it was indeed life to live. But he, also, was a man beloved by all who had the privilege of his intimate friendship.
William Petty FITZMAURICE, third Earl of Shelburne, and first Marquess of Lansdowne, was born in Dublin, in May, 1737. He was the son of John, Earl of Shelburne in the peerage of Ireland, and afterwards Baron Wycombe in the peerage of Great Britain. The Marquess's father united the possessions of the family founded by Sir William Petty with those which the Irish wars had left to the ancient line of Fitzmaurice.
William, Earl of SHELBURNE, was educated by private tutors, and then sent to Christ Church, Oxford. He left the University early, to take in or about the year 1756) a commission in the Guards. He was present in the battles of Campen and of Minden. At Minden, in particular, he evinced distinguished bravery. In May, 1760, and again in April, 1761, he was elected by the burgesses of High Wycombe to represent them in the House of Commons. But the death of Earl John, in the middle of 1761, called his son to take his seat in the House of Lords. He soon evinced the possession of powers eminently fitted to shine in Parliament. The impetuosity he had shown on the field
of Minden did not desert him in the strife of politics. Book II, Those who had listened to the early speeches of Pitt might well think that the army had again sent them a terrible LOVERSA cornet of horse.' So good a judge of political oratory as was Lord CAMDEN thought SHELBURNE to be second only BEGINNING to Chatham himself.
Lord SHELBURNE's first speech in Parliament—the first, at least, that attracted general notice—was made in support PARLIA of the Court and the Ministry (November 3, 1762). Within WENT. less than six months after its delivery he was called to the Privy Council, and placed at the head of the Board of Trade and Plantations. This appointment was made on the 23rd of April, 1763. Just before it he had taken part in that delicate negotiation between Lord ButE and Henry Fox (afterwards Lord HOLLAND) which has been kept well in memory by a jest of the man who thought himself the loser in it. This early incident is in some sort a key to many later incidents in Lord SHELBURNE's life.
For, in all the acts and offices of a political career, save SHELBURNE only one, Lord SHELBURNE was characteristically a lover of Fox. soft words. In debate, he could speak scathingly. In conversation, he was always under temptation to flatter his interlocutor. In this conversation of 1763 with Fox, SHELBURNE's innate love of smoothing asperities co-operated with his belief that it was really for the common interest that Bute and Fox should come to an agreement, to make him put the premier's offer into the most pleasing light. When Fox found he was to get less than he thought to have, he fiercely assailed the negotiator. Lord SHELBURNE's friends dwelt on his love of peace and good-fellowship. At worst, said they, it was but a pious fraud.' 'I can see the fraud plainly enough,' rejoined Fox, but where is the piety ?'
The office accepted in April was resigned in September,
when the coalition with the BEDFORD party' was made. LOVERS AND Lord SHELBURNE's loss was felt in the House of Lords.
But it was in the Commons that the Ministry were now feeblest. 'I don't see how they can meet Parliament,' said CHESTERFIELD. 'In the Commons they have not a man with ability and words enough to call a coach.'
In February, 1765, SHELBURNE married Lady Sophia CARTERET, one of the daughters of the Earl of GRANVILLE.
The marriage was a very happy one. Not long after it, he FORMATION began to form bis library. Political manuscripts, state
papers of every kind, and all such documents as tend to throw light on the arcana of history, were, more especially, the objects which he sought. And the quest, as will be seen presently, was very successful. For during his early re
searches he had but few competitors. THE SECRE- On the organization of the Duke of GRAFTON's Ministry
in 1766 (July 30) Lord SHELBURNE was made Secretary of State for the Southern Department, to which at that time the Colonial business was attached. His colleague, in the Northern, was Conway, who now led the House of Commons. As Secretary, Lord SHELBURNE's most conspicuous and influential act was his approval of that rejection of certain members of the Council of Massachusetts by Governor BERNARD, which had so important a bearing on colonial events to come.
SHELBURNE, however, was one of a class of statesmen of whom, very happily, this country has had many. He was able to render more efficient service in opposition than in office. Of the Board of Trade he had had the headship but a few months. As Secretary of State, under the GRAFTON Administration, he served little more than two years. His opponents were wont to call him an 'impracticable' man.
TARYSHIP OF STATE.
as Chap. III.
But if he shared some of CHATHAM's weaknesses, he also Book II, shared much of his greatness. And on the capital question Bookof the American dispute, they were at one. They both thought that the Colonies had been atrociously misgoverned. BeneracThey were willing to make large concessions to regain the loyalty of the Colonists. They were utterly averse to admit of a severance.
Under circumstances familiar to all readers, and by the Lord Shelpersonal urgency of the King, Lord SHELBURNE was dis- BURNE IN missed from his first Secretaryship in October, 1768. His dismissal led to CAATHAM's resignation. SHELBURNE became a prominent and powerful leader of the Opposition, an object of special dislike to a large force of political adversaries, and of warm attachment to a small number of political friends. His personal friends were, at all times, many.
The nickname under which his opponents were wont to satirize him has been kept in memory by one of the many infelicities of speech which did such cruel injustice to the fine parts and the generous heart of GOLDSMITH. The story has been many times told, but will bear to be told once again. The author of the Vicar of Wakefield was an occasional sup. porter of the Opposition in the newspapers. One day, in the autumn of 1773, he wrote an article in praise of Lord SHELBURNE's ardent friend in the City, the Lord Mayor TOWNSHEND. Sitting, in company with Topham BEAUCLERC, at Drury Lane Theatre, just after the appearance of the article, GOLDSMITH found himself close beside Lord SHELBURNE. His companion told the statesman that his City friend's eulogy came from Goldsmith's pen. “I hope,' said his Lordship-addressing the poet—' you put 1773. nothing in it about Malagrida ?' Do you know,' rejoined No
Hardy, poor GOLDSMITH, 'I could never conceive the reason why Life of Lord they call you "Malagrida,”—for Malagrida was a very good
Charlemont, vol. i, p. 177