« ElőzőTovább »
Specifications of Patents recently Enrolled.
GEORGE PRICE Simcox, of Kidderminster,
for improvements in the manufacture of carpets and other similar articles. Patent dated November 16th, 1847. Enrolled
May 16th, 1848. This specification relates to improvements in the manufacture of carpets and other similar articles, and consists of various modes of producing those fabrics whereby they may be made more durable, and at the same time much cheaper, than by the processes now in ordinary use. The improvements may be divided into two general heads or parts, the first of which refers to the production of fabrics of great durability, some of which are similar in appearance to the ordinary Brussels carpets ; the second relates to the manufacture of fabrics with a cut pile, such as Wilton or Axminster carpets. In all the different kinds of fabrics manufactured according to the patentee's improvements, the use of the jacquard apparatus in the looms is dispensed with; as also the employment of the iron wires or tags, which are ordinarily employed to produce terry fabrics, such as Brussels carpets and coach lace; by the suppression of these parts of the ordinary carpet looms, the machinery is rendered much more simple, can be worked at greater speed, and the fabric produced at much less expense than by the ordinary process. The first part of the invention consists in making a ribbed fabric greatly resembling the ordinary Brussels carpet, by a combination of woollen and linen warp and weft, arranged in such a manner that the woollen warp, in the form of a ribbed surface, may constitute the face of the fabric, while the linen warp forms the ground or back of the fabric. The plan which produces a fabric most closely resembling Brussels carpet, consists in weaving the fabric as nearly as possible in the ordinary way, except that instead of inserting a tag or wire to form the rib or terry, as is usually the case, a thick shoot or weft of woollen or cotton is thrown in and over which the woollen warp is drawn, and forms a rib; the woollen warp being afterwards bound down with a linen shoot or weft in the ordinary manner. The mode of producing this fabric will, perhaps, be better understood by referring
be better understood by referring to the annexed engraving, fig. 1, which shows the arrangement of the woollen
and linen warps and wefts. A fabrio somewhat different in appearance and character from that described above, may be produced in a loom of similar construction, by altering the arrangement and operation of the headdles, which work the warps. In the former case only four headdles were required, but as the present described fabric is a species of twill, six headdles must be employed. Instead of all the woollen warps being made to rise and fall together, only onethird of them goes down at one time, each warp thread, therefore, extends over three weft threads, and thereby produces the appearance called “twill;"this is representedin fig. 2. In fig. 3, each alternate woollen warp thread is made to pass over and under each weft thread, and is also bound in by the linen weft thread below; and in fig. 4, each alternate warp thread is made to pass over and hold two woollen weft threads, and is itself held down by the linen weft, but it never passes under the woollen weft, which, as in the former cases, forms part of the face of the fabric. The looms in which these fabrics are made do not differ very widely in construction from those usually employed for producing other fabrics ; the principal differ ence consisting in the employment of two separate shuttles : one for the woollen weft, and the other for the linen weft. These shuttles are both thrown by the same pickers, and consequently the shuttle-boxes must be moved up or down as may be required, in order to allow the picker to throw the proper shuttle. The patentee next proceeds to describe the operations of the headdles and shuttles for producing the fabrics before described ; reference being had to the figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. Fig. 5 represents the mode of working the headdles and shuttles for producing the fabric in imitation of Brussels carpet. The section of this mode is seen at fig. 1. To make this fabric, only four headdles arerequired; the line, a, represents the woollen warp ; the liné, 6, the linen or cotton stuffing warp ; and the lines, C, and d, the linen warp or ground chain; the warps are supposed to be in the position ready to commence work, that is with the woollen warp, a, up (as marked, at the first operation), with a small circle in diagram, and the shuttle must be so arranged as to
Fig. 7. throw the woollen shoot or weft, W, first, and when this is beaten up (which operation of course takes place each time a shuttle is thrown); secondly, the headdle, with part of the linen warp, c, is drawn up, the woollen warp, a, having been taken down; then the linen shoot or weft, L, is thrown in the direction of the arrows; thirdly, the linen warp, c, goes down, and the woollen warp, a, the stuffing warp, b, and the other part of the linen warp, d, come up, and the linen shoot or weft, L, is thrown back; fourthly, the woollen warp, a, is drawn up, and the warps, b, c, and d, taken down, and the woollen shoot or weft then returns; fifthly, the linen warp, d, is drawn up,
Fig. 8. the warps, a, b, and c, being down, the linen shoot or weft, L, is again thrown; and, sixthly, the warps a, b, and c, are raised, the warp, d, being taken down, and the linen weft is thrown in the opposite direction, and the course is completed; the like operations and movements are repeated in the same order. In fig. 6, of which fig. 2 is a section, there are six headdles employed to produce the twill fabric. In this case there are three woollen warps, a, b, and c, and three linen ones, d, e, and f; they are supposed to be in a position to commence weaving, that is, with the three woollen' warps, a, b, and c, up, and the linen ones, d, e, and, f, down, thereby se. parating the two materials comprising the frame from each other. The woollen shoot or weft, w, is first thrown in and beaten up; secondly, the warps, a, b, and, f, are drawn up, the warps, c, d, and, e, being down, and the linen weft, L, is thrown ; thirdly, the warps, a, b, c, d, and, e, are drawn up, and the warp,
Fig. 11. Fig. 10.
f, is down, and the linen weft, L, is thrown back again in the opposite direction, as shown by the arrows; fourthly, the warps, a, b, and, c, are drawn up, and the warps, d, e, and, f, taken down, and the woollen weft, w, thrown a second time; fifthly, the warps, b, c, and, d, are drawn up, and the warps, a, e, and, f, taken down, and the linen weft, L, thrown; sixthly, the warps, a, b, c, e, and f, are taken up, and the warp, d, is taken down, and the linen weft, L, thrown back again; seventhly, as at the commencement, the warps, a, b, and c, are up, and the warps, d, e, and, f, are down, and the woollen weft, w, thrown in ; eighthly, the warps, a, c, and e, are up, and b, d, and, f, are down, and the linen weft, L, is thrown; ninthly, the warps, a, b, c, d, and, f, are up, and the warp, e, is down, and the linen shoot is thrown back again, which completes the course, the same movement being repeated in manufacturing the fabric. Fig. 7, represents the arrangement of movement, of which fig. 3, is a section. There are but four headdles required in this arrangement, viz. two woollen, a, and, b, and two linen, c, and, d. The first part of the operation is to draw up the woollen warp, a; the other woollen warp, b, and the linen warps, c, and, d, being down, and then to throw in the woollen weft, W. Secondly, the warp, b, and, d, being up, and the warp, a, and, c, down, throw the linen weft, L, back again. Thirdly, draw up the warps, a, b, c, the warp, d, being down, and throw the linen weft, L, back again. Fourthly, draw up the warp, h, the warps, a, c, and, d, being down, and throw the woollen weft, w, back again, Fifthly, raise the warps, a, and, c, the warps, b, and, d, being down, and throw in the linen weft, L. Sixthly, raise the warps, a, b, and d, the warp, c, being down, and throw the linen weft, L, back again, and the course is completed Fig. 8, represents an arrangement somewhat similar to the one just described, with the same number of headdles, Fig. 4 being a section of the fabric. First, the woollen warps, a, and, b, are drawn up, the linen warps, c, and, d, being down; the woollen weft, w, is thrown. Secondly, the warps, b, and, d, are up, and the warps, a, and, c, are taken down; the linen weft is then thrown. Thirdly, the warps, a, b, and, c, are raised, and the warp, d, is down, and the linen weft, L, returned. Fourthly, the warps, a, and, b, are drawn up, and the warps, c, and, d, are down; the woollen weft, w, is again thrown, Fifthly, the warps, a, and, c, are raised, and the
warps, b, and, d, are down, and the linen weft, L, thrown. Sixthly, the warps, a, b. and, d, are raised, and the warp, c, is down; and the linen weft thrown back again, and the course completed. The patentee remarks that these fabrics may be made either in a hand or power-loom. The second part of the invention relates to the production of fabrics with a cut pile, or such as are known as Wilton or Axminster carpets or rugs. The ordinary mode of making some of these fabrics is to weave the pattern in by means of a jacquard apparatus, and pass the woollen warp over a rod or tag, which is afterwards cut out by passing a suitable knife along it, thereby producing the cut pile. In man tai turing rugs, the process is still more tedious and costly, as the pattern threads are put in by hand. This mode of making cut pile and other carpets or similar fabrics has, however, been much simplified by the employment of a printed warp, which, when woven over wires or rods and the surfaces afterwards cut, produces a fabric with an ornamental design, scarcely, if at all, inferior in appearance to that produced by the old but more tedious process. The object of the present invention is to produce a similar fabric, but in a different, and a much more economical manner, as a loom constructed according to the present improvement can be driven by power, as the patentee dispenses al together with the use of the jacquard apparatus, and also the employment of the wires or tags to form the piles. By the patentee's improvements, the pattern or design and the surface of the fabric are produced from the weft threads in place of the warp threads, as heretofore. For this purpose, the weft is made to consist of thick woollen shoot or thread, which must be printed or stained with suitable colours, precisely as the woollen warps have been hitherto done. The woollen weft, when thrown in, is, by means of suitably-formed hooks, pulled up and formed into loops, which, when they are properly secured to the foundation or ground of the fabric, are afterwards cut, by means of knives or cutting instru ments, for the purpose of releasing them from the loops, and producing the cut pile. This part of the patentee's improvements is represented in the remaining figures, fig. 9, being a vertical section of that part of the loom with which the improvements are connected; A,A, the frame-work of the loom; B,B, the battenlathe or stay ;. C,C, the double shuttleboxes ; D,D), the shuttles, one of which
is furnished with a woollen weft thread to form the pile ; and the other with a linen one, to form the foundation or ground of the fabric; E, is the main driving-shaft. the ai driving-shaft, the cranks of which are connected to the lathe or stay by connecting-rods or straps, F,F. Upon the main-shaft, E, is mounted a small toothed wheel, G, which drives another toothed. wheel, H, mounted upon the shaft, I. Upon the shaft, I, are also mounted two other wheels, J,J, having teeth around only a portion of their peripheries. These wheels work at intervals the wheels, K,K, mounted upon the shaft, L, which wheels are also furnished with teeth, on a portion only of their periphery. On the shaft, L, are also mounted the two large pullies, M,M; these pullies are connected by cords, P, Q, to a roller, O, de. nominated the lifting-roller. The cords are guided in their proper direction by loose pullies. A horizontal bar or rail extends across the front of the machine, for the lifting-roller, 0, to run upon, and there is a round rod or bar also extending across the front of the loom for the purpose of guiding the lifting-roller, 0, in its proper course, and preventing it from running off the other rail. U,U, are a series of hooks, also shewn, detached, upon an enlarged scale at figs. 10. and. 11. These hooks are furnished with knives or cutting-blades, U', and placed in front of the batten, B; the lower ends of the hool.s are also passed down between the warp threads, Y, just in front of the work, and enter into notches cut in the lower hori. zontal beam of the batten, B; the upper ends of these hooks are slotted and are suspended from a rod, W, which is passed through the slots for the purpose. This rod, W, rests upon the horizontal bar, W', which, as well as another horizontal bar, W", below, is not notched, so as to form comb-bars, and serve the hooks as they rise and fall, and thus to keep them in their proper positions. The operation of the loom is as follows:-Having formed the shed in the ordinary way, by means of the headdles, and thrown the shuttle containing the linen weft, the batten or stay will beat up the linen weft which has just been thrown, and the other shed of the warps must be formed, and the shuttle containing the woollen weft thrown; the hooks, U, which, during the last beat up of the linen weft were resting upon the bar, W', are now caused to drop down between the warp threads, and a short beat up of the batten takes place, which must be just sufficient to place the woollen weft on the lower end or hooked part of
the hook, U; then the hooks are to be. drawn up in succession by means of the lifting-roller, 0, and the woollen weft will by the operation be pulled up into loops. The hooks are lifted by the roller, 0, which is made to travel across the machine by the communicated motion from the large wheels, J,J, by means of the toothed-wheels, G, and, H, and as the wheels, J,J, take alternately into the teeth of the small wheels, K,K, immediately after every throw of the woollen weft, thereby causing them with the pulleys, M, or N, to revolve rapidly, the liftingroller, 0, will, by means of the corde, P, or, Q, be made to move very rapidly along the bar in front of the loom, and act against the under sides of horizontal projections, 1, on the upper part of the hooks, U,U, and thereby raise them, and as they are raised, they are forced torward by the springs, X, and made to catch or lodge upon the bar, W", where they remain suspended until they are released by the lathe or batten as hereafter described. It should be understood that the shaft, L, is fixed and does not revolve, and that the wheels and pulleys, K, and, M, are mounted upon hollow shafts which revolve loosely upon the shaft, L, and are independent of each other, so that when the teeth of the wheel, J, have worked out of gear, or passed the teeth of the small wheel, K, and brought the liftingroller, 0, across the loom, the cord attached to the other pulley will cause that pulley to revolve and bring the teeth of the wheel, K, into a position to be acted upon by the wheel, J, as it comes round, which will be the case immecliately after the next woollen weft is thrown and laid upon the hooks ready to be raised and formed into loops. While the hooks, U, have hold of the loops of the woollen weft, and are suspended from the bar, W", the shed is again changed and a weft of linen is thrown, which, when closely beaten up, will bind and secure the woollen weft in its looped position, leaving it ready to be cut or opened by the knives or cutting instruments upon the hooks, U. This cutting or opening of the loops is effected in the following manner :-To the swords of the batten, B, is affixed a horizontal cross-piece, Y, the under side of which is bevelled, and will, when the batten beats up, come into contact with and press down the lever, L; connected to the knives or cutters, u', u', of the hooks, thereby causing the knives to rise and cut through the weft and open the loops to form the face of the fabric, when, as the batten recedes, the edge of the piece, Y, catches into notches in the
ends of the levers, z, and draws them forward off the bar, W", when they will fall down by their own weight, ready to receive the next shoot of weft. It has been stated that when the woollen weft is thrown, a short beat up is given by the batten, for the purpose of placing the weft upon the hooks : this is effected as follows:-Upon the shaft, I, are placed two cams, which depress two levers, which, by means of rods, lower the pins of the connecting-rods, E,F, and cause them to slide down the curved slots in the lower ends of the swords of the batten, B, and thereby shorten the beat up of the latter. The patentee describes a modification of his invention, in which the moveable knife is dispensed with, and instead thereof the hook is made with a knife-edge, and is intended to cut the loop. Instead of the lifting-roller, O, there is a large cam-wheel driven off the shaft, I, which act upon short ends of horizontal levers, the other ends being connected to the hooks, U, and the hooks are thereby raised in succession, when the linen weft has been thrown and beaten up, and the set of cams upon the same wheel further raises the hooks and thereby cuts the loops and forms the pile. The patentee, after fully describing his invention, states,' he does not confine himself to the use of woollen and linen warp and weft only, as cotton or other materials may be em. ploved in the production of some of the fabrics. Neither does he confine himself precisely to the arrangement of the threads described, as various modifications may be made to effect the desired end, but he claims : -- First, the production of a fabric in imitation of Brussels carpet with a linen or cotton ground and a ribbed surface, consisting of woollen or cotton warp, with a woollen or cotton stuffing shoot to form the rib. Secondly, the production of various fabrics described or any modifications thereof in which there is a strong linen or cotton ground, combined with a woollen or cotton surface, which may be ornamented by print or otherwise. Thirdly, the producing a cut pile fabric by drawing up the weft or shoot either plain or printed, by means of hooks or other similar instruments, which are afterwards made to cut the loops thus formed, and produce a cut pile.
FREDERICK COLLIER BAKEWELL, of Hamp
stead, Middlesex, gentleman, for certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for making or manufacturing soda-water and other ærated waters and liquids.