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CHAP. when they come to the state of men and women, they
alter' them according to their deeds or dispositions.
When a maid is taken in marriage, she first cutteth her hair, and after weareth a covering on her head, till her hair be grown out. Their women are diversely disposed; some as modest, as they will scarce talk one with another in the company of men, being very chaste also; yet other some light, lascivious and wanton. If a woman have a bad husband, or cannot affect him, and there be war or opposition between that and any other people, she will run away from him to the contrary party, and there live; where they never come unwelcome, for where are most women, there is greatest plenty.
When a woman hath her monthly terms, she separateth herself from all other company, and liveth certain days in a house alone ; after which, she washeth herself, and all that she hath touched or used, and is again received to her husband's bed or family. For adultery, the husband will beat his wife and put her away, if he please. Some common strumpets there are, as well as in other places; but they are such as either never married, or widows, or put away for adultery ; for no man will keep such an one to wife.
In matters of unjust and dishonest dealing, the sachim examineth and punisheth the same.
In case of thefts, for the first offence, he is disgracefully rebuked ; for the second, beaten by the sachim with a cudgel on the naked back; for the third, he is beaten with many strokes, and hath his nose slit upwards, that thereby all men may both know and shun him. If any man kill another, he must likewise die for the same. The
See note ' on page 191.
sachim not only passes the sentence upon malefactors, CHAP. but executeth the same with his own hands, if the party be then present; if not, sendeth his own knife, 162 3. in case of death, in the hands of others to perform the same. But if the offender be to receive other punishment, he will not receive the same but from the sachim himself; before whom, being naked, he kneeleth, and will not offer to run away, though he beat him never so much, it being a greater disparagement for a man to cry during the time of his correction, than is his offence and punishment.
As for their apparel, they wear breeches and stockings in one, like some Irish, which is made of deer skins, and have shoes of the same leather. They wear also a decr's skin loose about them, like a cloak, which they will turn to the weather side. In this habit they travel ; but when they are at home, or come to their journey's end, presently they pull off their breeches, stockings and shoes, wring out the water, if they be wet, and dry them, and rub or chase the same. Though these be off, yet have they another small garment that covereth their secrets. The men wear also, when they go abroad in cold weather, an otter or fox skin on their right arın," but only their bracer on the left. Women, and all of that sex, wear strings about their legs, which the men never do.
The people are very ingenious and observative; they
" See page 308.
chiefest warriors, to fetch off a head most usunl custoin by somo sudden, unexpected blow amongst them in exccuting pun- of a hatclict, whicn thoy havo foarishinents, is for the sachim cithered mutiny by public cxccution.”' to beat or whip or put to death Roger Williams's Key, ch. xxii. with his own hand, to which tho Sco also pago 201 provious. common sort most quietly submit ; • See noloo on page 187. though sometimes the sachim sends • See page 187. a secret executioner, one of his
LANGUAGE OF THE INDIANS.
CHAP: keep account of time by the moon, and winters or
summers ; they know divers of the stars by name ; in 16 2 3. particular they know the north star, and call it maske,
which is to say, the bear ;' also they have many names for the winds. They will guess very well at the wind and weather beforehand, by observations in the heavens. They report also, that some of them can cause the wind to blow in what part they list — can raise storms and tempests,” which they usually do when they intend the death or destruction of other people, that by reason of the unseasonable weather, they may take advantage of their enemies in their houses. At such times they perform their greatest exploits, and in such seasons, when they are at enmity with any, they keep more careful watch than at other times.
As for the language, it is very copious, large, and difficult. As yet we cannot attain to any great measure thereof; but can understand them, and explain ourselves to their understanding, by the help of those that daily converse with us. And though there be difference in a hundred miles' distance of place, both in language and manners, yet not so much but that
I “ Mosk or paukunawaw, the water burn, the rocks move, the Great Bear, or Charles's Wain ; trees dance, and metamorphize which words mosk or paukunawaw himself into a flaming man. In signifies a bear; which is so inuch winter, when there are no green the more observable, because in leaves to be got, he will burn an most languages that sign or constel- old one to ashes, and putting these Jation is called the Bear.” Roger into the water, produce a new green Williams's Key, ch. xii.
leaf, which you shall not only see, ?“ Their powows, by their exor but substantially handle and carry cisms, and necromantic charms, away ; and make a dead snake's bring to pass strange things, if we skin a living snake, both to be seen, may believe the Indians; who re- felt, and heard.” Wood's New port of one Passaconaway, a great England's Prospect, part ii. ch. 12; sagamore upon Merrimack river, Hutchinson's Nass. i. 474 ; Mor: and the most celebrated powow in ton's New English Canaan, book i. the country, that he can make the ch. 9.
they very well understand each other." And thus CHAP. much of their lives and manners.
Instead of records and chronicles, they take this 162 3. course. Where any remarkable act is done, in memory of it, either in the place, or by some pathway near adjoining, they make a round hole in the ground, about a foot deep, and as much over; which when others passing by behold, they inquire the cause and occasion of the same, which being once known, they are careful to acquaint all men, as occasion serveth, therewith ; and lest such holes should be filled or grown up by any accident, as men pass by, they will oft renew the same; by which means many things of great antiquity are fresh in memory. So that as a man travelleth, if he can understand his guide, his journey will be the less tedious, by reason of the many historical discourses (which) will be related unto him.
1 " There is a mixture of this " The Indians of the parts of language norih and south, from the New England, especially upon the place of my abode, about 600 iniles; sca-coasts, use the same sort of yet within the 200 miles aforemen- specch and language, only with iioned, their dialects do exceedingly some difference in the expressions, differ ; yet not so but, within that as they differ in several counties in compass, a man may converse with England, yet so as they can well thousands of natives all over the understand one another.' Gookin, country.” Roger Williams's Key, in Mass. Hist. Coll. i. 149. Pref.
OF THE SITUATION, CLIMATE, SOIL, AND PRODUCTIONS OF
In all this, it may be said, I have neither praised nor
dispraised the country; and since I lived so long there16 23. in, my judgment thereof will give no less satisfaction
to them that know me, than the relation of our proceedings.
To which I answer, that as in one, só of the other, I will speak as sparingly as I can, yet will make known what I conceive thereof.
And first for that continent, on which we are, called New England, although it hath ever been conceived by the English to be a part of the main land adjoining to Virginia, yet by relation of the Indians it should
appear to be otherwise ; for they affirm confidently that it is an island, and that either the Dutch or French pass through from sea to sea between us and Virginia, and drive a great trade in the same. The name of that inlet of the sea they call Mohegon, which I tako to be the same which we call Hudson's river, up which Master Hudson went many leagues, and for want of
" See page 250.