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164

PLYMOUTH HARBOUR.

X.

CHAP. oaks, pines, walnuts, beech, sassafras, vines, and other

trees which we know not. This bay is a most hope1020. ful place; innumerable store of fowl, and excellent

good; and cannot but be of fish in their seasons ; skate, cod, turbot," and herring, we have tasted of; abundance of muscles, the greatest and best that ever we saw ; crabs and lobsters,“ in their time, infinite. It is in fashion like a sickle, or fish-hook.5

Monday, the 18th day, we went a land,“ manned

Dec. 18.

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the mouth of the harbour." This • Skate and cod are still caught seems conclusive of the point that here. The European turbot, it is Brown's island was then under well known, is not found in our water. The other island I suppose waters. The first settlers probably was Saquish, which, although a gave this name to the flounder or peninsula, very much resembles an small halibut. See Storer's Reisland, and may very naturally have port on the Fishes of Massachusetts, been mistaken for one; or at that pp. 140, 145, 146. Higginson, in his time the water may have flowed New England's Plantation, enuacross the narrow neck which now merates the turbot among other unites it with the Gurnet, and com- fish. T. Morton, in his New Engpletely isolated it.

Oldmixon, i. lish Canaan, ch. vii. says, there 30, commits an egregious blunder is a large-sized fish, called halibut, when he states, that “ the har or turbot ; some are taken so big bour (Plymouth) was a bay larger that two men have much ado to than Cape Cod, and two fine is haul them into the boat.”

lands, Rhode Island and Elizabeth ch. ix. says, “the halibut is not x Island, in it!"

much unlike a plaice or turbot, some The only forest trees now on being two yards long, and one wide, Clark's island are three red cedars, and a foot thick.” And Josselyn, which appear to be very old, and p. 26, says, some will have the are decaying. This wood was the halibut and turbot all one; others disoriginal growth of the island, a tinguish them ; there is no question tree which loves the vicinity of to be made of it but that they are rocks, which abound here. A few distinct kinds of fish." The turbot years since, the present proprietor and plaice are very much alike in of the island, whilst digging out appearance,

See the figures of some large routs on its margin, them in Yarrell's British Fishes, found a number of acorns four foot i. 209, 233. beneath the surface. Blackberry • There are muscles in Plymouth, vines are still found there. On but generally small, and clams; the Saquish thero is ono solitary tree, Journal probably refers to the latter. which has weathered the storms of Crabs and lobsters are very abundages.

In 1815 there were two. ant in the summer season. In earlier times the town forbade • The form of Plymouth Bay, felling trees at Saquish within 10 which includes Kingston and Duxfeet of the bank. See Mass. Hist. bury harbours, is accurately deColl. xiii. 182.

scribed. 2. Wild fowl are yet abundant in 6 The words " in the long-boat” Plymouth harbour.

seem to be omitted.

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THE TREES AND PLANTS OF PLYMOUTH.

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with the master of the ship and three or four of the CHAP. sailors. We marched along the coast in the woods some seven or eight miles,' but saw not an Indian nor 1620. an Indian house; only we found where formerly had 18. been some inhabitants, and where they had planted their corn.

We found not any navigable river, but four or five small running brooks? of very sweet fresh water, that all run into the sea. The land for the crust of the earth is, a spit's depth,' excellent black mould, and fat in some places ;“ two or three great oaks, but not very thick, pines, walnuts, beech, ash, birch, hazel, holly, asp, sassafras in abundance, and viness every where, cherry trees, plum trees, and many others which we know not. Many kinds of herbs we found here in winter, as strawberry leaves innumerable, sorrel, yarrow, carvel, brooklime, liverwort, water

1 Whichever way the travellers * This is an exact description of went, they could not have walked a strip of land, between the hills seven miles ; because northwest, and the sea-shore, where the garat the distance of four miles, they dens now are. The soil too is would have come to Jones's river in good on Clark's Island, Saquish, Kingston, and southeast, at the and the Gurnet. distance of three miles, to Eel *The wild grape, both white and river. These rivers, though not red, the blackberry and the rasplarge, cannot be denominated berry, are found here now. brooks. F.

* Åll the trees here enumerated · North of the village, towards are now found in Plymouth. The Kingston, there are five brooks, asp, or aspen, was probably our which were named by the original native poplar. The beach, about planters l'irst Brook, Second Brook, three miles long, which lies in &c. in order, beginning from the front of the village, extending from town. Half a mile south of the Eel river, N. N. West, and provillage is Wellingsly Brook, by the tecting the harbour, was originally side of which dwelt Secretary well wooded. Towards the northMorton. Double Brook, or Shingle ern part, till 1770, it was quite Brook of the first settlers, runs thickly covered with trecs. The northerly by the post road to Sand- inner side of the beach was coverwich, and unites with Fel river. cd with plum and wild-cherry trecs, Beaver Dam Brook is in the village and the swamp with large pitch of Manomet Ponds. Indian Brook pine and beech wood. Beech plums, is still further south on the shore. wild gooseberries, and white grapes See Mass. Hist. Coll. xiii. 178, and were found here in great quantities Thacher’s Plymouth, p. 322. in their proper season. See a list "See note on page 123.

of the trees, in Mass. Hist. Coll.

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Dec. 19.

CHAP. cresses, great store of leeks and onions,' and an exîn cellent strong kind of flax and hemp.: Here is sand, 1620. gravel, and excellent clay, no better in the world, ex

cellent for pots, and will wash like soap, and great store of stone, though somewhat soft, and the best water that ever we drunk ; and the brooks now begin to be full of fish. That night, many being weary with marching, we went aboard again.

The next morning, being Tuesday, the 19th of December, we went again to discover further; some went on land, and some in the shallop. The land we found as the former day we did; and we found a creek, and went up three English miles, a very pleasant river at

A bark of thirty tons may go up; but at low water scarce our shallop could pass. This place we had a great liking to plant in, but that it was so far from our fishing, our principal profit, and so encompassed with woods, that we should be in much danger of the salvages; and our number being so little, and so much ground to clear; so as we thought good to

full sea.

xiii. 165, 172, 200 ; Thacher's • Plynouth is abundantly suppli. Plymouth, p. 328.

ed with springs and brooks of exThese were probably the allium cellent water. F. Sco p. 129. Canalense.

• Some years since, before the : The Indian hemp (apocynum Town Brook was obstructed, tomcannabinum.) Wood says, ch. 5, cods were abundant in December; “ This land likewise affords hemp eels and smelts enter the brooks in and fax naturally ;” and Captain autumn. John Smith mentions “a kind or 6 This was Jones's river, in two of llax, wherewith they make Kingston, so called, it is supposed, nets, lines and ropes, both small by the Pilgrinis, in compliment to and great, very strong for their the Captain of the Mayflower ; quantities.” T. Morton too, says, which they would not have done ch. 2, “there is hemp, that naturally had they entertained any doubt of groweth, finer than our hemp of his fidelity. Jones's river parish England." See Mass. Hist. Coll. was set off from Plymouth in 1717, xxvi. 120.

and incorporated in 1726, as the 3 The sand, gravel and clay are town of Kingston. See note : on aptly described.

There is not p. 138, and Mass. Hist. Coll. xii. much stone at Plymouth, except a 208 and 217. few bowlders of sienite.

THEY CONCLUDE TO BUILD ON THE BANK.

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quit and clear that place till we were of more strength. CHAP. Some of us, having a good mind, for safety, to plant in the greater isle, we crossed the bay, which is there 1620. five or six miles over, and found the isle about a mile and a half or two miles about, all wooded, and no fresh water but two or three pits, that we doubted of fresh water in summer, and so full of wood as we could hardly clear so much as to serve us for corn. Besides, we judged it cold for our corn, and some part very rocky; yet divers thought of it as a place defensible, and of great security. That night we returned again a shipboard, with resolution the next morning to settle on some of those places.

So in the morning, after we had called on God for Dec. direction, we came to this resolution, to go presently ashore again, and to take a better view of two places which we thought most fitting for us; for we could not now take time for further search or consideration, our victuals being much spent, especially our beer, and it being now the 19th of December. After our landing and viewing of the places, so well as we could, we came to a conclusion, by most voices, to set on the main land, on the first place, on a high ground, where there is a great deal of land cleared, and hath been planted with corn three or four years ago; and there is a very sweet brook* runs under the hill side, and many delicate springs of as good water as can be drunk, and where we may harbour our shallops and boats exceeding well ; and in this brook much good

"I think the word not is here accidentally omitted.

See note on page 160. • On the bank, facing the harbour.

* Now called Town brook.

It issues from a pond called Billington Sea. F.

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RAINY AND TEMPESTUOUS WEATHER.

CHAP. fish in their seasons ; on the further side of the river X.

also much corn-ground cleared. In one field is a 1620. great hill, on which we point to make a platform,

and plant our ordnance, which will command all round about. From thence we may see into the bay, and far into the sea ; and we may see thence Cape Cod. Our greatest labor will be fetching of our wood, which is half a quarter of an English mile; but there is enough so far off. What people inhabit here we yet know not, for as yet we have seen none. So there we made our rendezvous, and a place for some of our people, about twenty, resolving in the morning to come all ashore and to build houses.

But the next morning, being Thursday, the 21st of December, it was stormy and wet, that we could not go ashore ; and those that remained there all night could do nothing, but were wet, not having daylight enough to make them a sufficient court of guard, to keep them dry. All that night it blew and rained extremely. It was so tempestuous that the shallop could not go on land so soon as was meet, for they had no victuals on land. About eleven o'clock the shallop went off with much ado with provision, but could not return, it blew so strong; and was such foul weather that we were forced to let fall our anchor, and ride with three anchors ahead."

Friday, the 22d, the storm still continued, that we

Dec. 21.

Dec.

22.

'On the spot now called the Duxbury, and the shores of the bay Training Green.

for miles around, is unrivalled by * The Burial Hill, rising 165 feet any sea view in the country. above the level of the sea, and co : In a clear day the white sand vering about eight acres. The hills of Provincetown may be disview from this eminence, embrac- tinctly seen from this hill. ing the harbour, the beach, the Dec. 21, dies Richard BritteGurnet, Manomet Point, Clark's rige, the first who dies in this harisland, Saquish, Captain's Hill in bour.” Bradford, in Prince, p. 168.

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