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Hook Hi, a chimaera beneath the horse; but this portion of the sculp
Cli»p IV .
Anothik ture is unfinished, and the rock beneath is left rough; the Aechloto. columns of the portico are only blocked out from the rock. Gists And of the bas-relief of Bellerophon I have casts, and the full
Explorers. ^ 1
detail of the colouring which now remains upon the figures. This is probably the earliest sculpture which we have obtained. From Cadyanda I have casts of parts of a beautiful tomb, which is so much in ruins, and shaken into fragments, that I could not even take casts of the whole of the sculptures that remain. The roof or lid is wanting. The tomb now consists of a chamber in imitation of a wooden structure, and in the panels is sculpture; surmounting this is a smaller solid block, or plinth, also sculptured, but the upper part is wanting. These bas-reliefs, of which I show many drawings in my 'Lycia,' derive great additional interest from several of the figures having near them names inscribed in two languages—the Greek and the Lycian. The casts of these, I doubt not, will be valued as important illustrations. From Myra I have casts of the whole of the figures ornamenting one of the rock-tombs. Three of these subjects from within the Portico retain so much of their original painting that I have had the casts coloured on the spot as fac-similes, and a portion of the paint is preserved for chemical examination. There are from this tomb eleven figures the size of life. Of the inscriptions of this people I have made many copies; I have had casts of one long one from the large Gothic-formed tomb at Antiphellus, also of the bilingual inscription from the same place, and of another from Levisse, near the ancient Telmessus.
'Of the age of the next works of which I must speak, and which are a large portion of the collection from Xanthus, I have great difficulty in forming an opinion. The whole t«p were found around a basement which stands on the edge of a Book Hi, i; t cliff to the south-east of the ancient Acropolis. The monu- Another ment which stood upon this stoa has been thrown down by gb0" of
he i earthquake, almost the whole of its ruins falling towards GISTS AND
1 ... Explorers.
igoi the north-west. These works are of a people quite distinct rest from the preceding, both in their architecture, sculpture, b; and language: these are purely Greek. On carefully examining the whole of the architectural members of which I have specimens selected (some retaining coloured patterns upon them), as well as the position in which each of the various parts were thrown, I have, in my own mind, reconstructed the building, the whole of which was of Parian marble, and highly finished. The monument which I suppose to have crowned this basement has been either a magnificent tomb, or a monument erected as a memorial of a great victory. In re-forming this, I require the whole of the parts that we have found, and none are wanting except two stones of the larger frieze, and the fragments of the statues. The art of this sculpture is Greek, but the subjects show many peculiarities and links to the earlier works found in Lycia. The frieze, representing the taking refuge within a city, and the sally out of its walls upon the besiegers, has many points of this character. The city represented is an ancient Lycian city, and has within its walls the stele, or monument known alone in Xanthus. The city is upon a rock; women are seen upon the walls. The costume of the men is a longer and thinner garment than is seen in the Attic Greeks. The shields of the chiefs are curtained. The saddle-cloth of the jaded horse entering the city is precisely like the one upon the Pegasus of Bellerophon, and the conqueror and judge is an Eastern chief, with the umbrella, the emblem of Oriental royalty, held over him. The body-guard and conquering party of the chief are
Travels and Researches in Asia Minor, \ pp. 429, 430 1852).
Greek soldiers. Many of these peculiarities are also seen in the larger frieze, and also in the style of the lions and statues. The form of the building, which alone I can reconcile with the remains, is a Carian monument of the Tonic order. Bearing in mind all these points, I am strongly inclined to attribute this work to the mercenaries from iEolia and Ionia, brought down by Harpagus to conquer the inhabitants of Xanthus, whom they are said to have utterly destroyed. This monument may have been the tomb of a chief, or erected as a memorial of the conquest of the city by Harpagus. No inscription has been found, or it might probably have thrown some light upon the date of this work. In the immediate neighbourhood were found the other friezes, representing hunting-scenes, a battle, offerings of various kinds and by different nations, funeral feasts, and several statues which are of the same date.' Sir Charles then concludes thus :—
'The whole of the remaining works now to be traced amidst the ruins of Xanthus are decidedly of a late date; scarcely any are to be attributed to a period preceding the Christian era, and to that age I cannot conceive the works just noticed to have belonged. A triumphal arch or gateway of the city at the foot of the cliff of which I have spoken has upon it a Greek inscription, showing it to have been erected in the reign of Vespasian, A.D. 80: from this arch are the metopes and triglyphs now in the Museum. Through this is a pavement of flagstones leading towards the theatre. To this age I should attribute the theatre, agora, and most of the buildings which I have called Greek, and which are marked red upon the plan. To this people belong the immense quantity of mosaic pavements which have existed in all parts of the city. Almost all the small pebbles in the fields are the debris of these works. In many places we have found patterns remaining which are of Book in,
~. , . , . , Chap. IV.
coarse execution, but Creek in design. Another
The not a whit less interesting discoveries at Halicar- <-istsand
nassus and elsewhere, made chiefly in the years 1856, the 1857, and 1858, by Mr. Charles Newton, now claim ^^Z"1 attention, but my present notice of them can be but very »*ssus>°F
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inadequate to the worth of the subject. They as richly Ofbrandeserve a full record as do the explorations of Layard or those of Fellows.
The earliest, in arrival, of the Halicarnassian Marbles were procured by our Ambassador at Constantinople (then Sir Stratford Canning, now) Lord Stratford De Redcliffe. These first-received marbles comprise twelve slabs, sculptured with the combats of Greeks and Amazons in low-relief; and were removed from the walls of the mediaeval castle of Budrum, in the year 1846, with the permission, of course, of the Sublime Porte. It is a tribute all the stronger to the energy of Lord Stratford to find another man of energy writing, in 1841: 'I would not have been a party to the asking what—to all who have seen them' (namely, the Marbles of Halicarnassus, built into the inner walls of Budrum Castle)—' must be considered as an unreasonable request.' It took, it is true, five years for ^tarc*«i« Lord Stratford to overcome the obstacle which to Mr. ^Jn'iso Fellows seemed, in 1841, quite insuperable. (1853'
In 1856, and expressly in order to a thorough explora- The tion of the site of Halicarnassus, and of other promising "!*TMK parts of the Levant, Mr. Charles Newton, then one of 1*TMTM°*
i n i rr* n ... Mr.charlks
the ablest of the officers of the Department of Antiquities Nrwtos. (whose loss at the Museum, even for three or four years, was not very easily replaceable), accepted the office of British Vice-Consul at Mitylene. In 1857, he discovered
Hook III, Clmp. IV. Another Group Of Arch* IloGists And Explorers.
Op MAUSOLUS AT
Guide to the
four additional slabs (similar to those received from the Ambassador), on the site of the world-famous mausoleum itself; several colossal statues, and portions of such; together with a multitude of architectural fragments of almost every conceivable kind; columns—mostly broken into many portions—with, their bases, capitals, and entablatures, in sufficient quantity and diversity to warrant a faithful restoration of the ancient building by a competent hand.
From Didyme (near Miletus), from Cnidus, and from Branchidae, many fine archaic figures in the round; some colossal lions; and an enormous number of fragments both of sculpture and of architecture; with many minor antiquities, various in character and in material, were successively sent to England. Mr. Charles Newton's narrative of his adventures at Budrum, and at several of the other places of his sojourn and excavations, is very graphic. Some portions of it are worthy to be placed side by side with the hest chapters of the earlier narrative of the explorations and travelling experiences of Layard.
Of the most famous trophy of Mr. Newton's first mission to the East—the mausoleum built by Queen Artemisia— the discoverer has himself more recently given this brief and striking descriptive account:—
This monument, writes Mr. Newton, in 1869, was erected 'to contain the remains of Mausolus, Prince of Caria, about B.C. 352. It consisted of a lofty basement, on which stood an oblong Ionic edifice, surrounded by thirty-six Ionic columns, and surmounted by a pyramid of twenty-four steps. The whole structure, a hundred and forty feet in height, was crowned by a chariot-group in white marble, in which probably stood Mausolus himself, represented after his translation to the world of demigods