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Book III,
Chap. IV.
Another
Group Op
Arch Biolo-
Gists AND
Explorers.

Ibid., 346.

taries of the great monarch are seen in long procession, bearing their offerings. In the appended cuneiform record of these tributaries are mentioned Jehu, 'of the House of Omri,' and his contemporary Hazael, King of Syria. Well may the proud discoverer call his trophy a 'precious relic.'

The DisCoveries At Kouyunjik

OP THE SPRING OP 1851.

Discoveries at Nineveh and Babylon (edit. 1853), pp. 682-584.

We now leap over more than four eventful years. Mr. Latard is about to exchange the often anxious but always glorious toils of the successful archaeologist, for the not less anxious and very often exceedingly inglorious toils of the politician. He will also henceforth have to exchange many a pleasant morning ride and many a peaceful evening 'tobaccoparliament' with Arabs of the Desert, for turbulent discussions with metropolitan electors, and humble obeisances in order to win their sweet voices. Just before he leaves Mosul come some new unearthings of Assyrian sculpture, to add to the welcome tidings he will carry into England.

He found, he tells us—in one of the closing chapters of his latest book—that to the north of the great centre-hall four new chambers, full of sculpture, had been discovered. On the walls of a grand gallery, ninety-six feet by twentythree, was represented the return of an Assyrian army from a campaign in which they had won loads of spoil and a long array of prisoners. The captured fighting men wore a sort of Phrygian bonnet reversed, short tunics, and broad belts. The women had long tresses and fringed robes. Sometimes they rode on mules or were drawn— by men as well as by mules—in chariots. The captives were the men and women of Susiana. The victor was Sennacherib.

In several subsequent years—1853, 1854, 1855, when most Englishmen were intently acting, or beholding with

s* suspended breath, the great drama in the Crimea—a famous Book Hi,

... , , i i • • • i i Chap. IV.

ef compatriot was continuing the task so nobly initiated by Akothkr

Group or
Aech^olo-

Austen Layard. Sir Henry Rawlinson (made by this

Explorers.

time Consul-General at Baghdad) carried on new excava- BISTSASD

tions, both at Nimroud and at Kouyunjik. In these he was ably assisted by Mr. W. K. Loftus, as well as by Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, the helper and early friend of Layahd, and (in the later stages) by Mr. Taylor. Another obelisk, with portions of a third and fourth; thirty-four slabs sculptured in low-relief; one statue in the round; and a multitude of smaller objects, illustrating with wonderful diversity and minuteness the manners and customs, the modes of life and of thought, as well as the wars and conquests, the luxury and the cruelty, of the old Assyrians, were among the treasures which, by the collective labour of these distinguished explorers, were sent into Britain. Another 'recension,' so to speak, of the early Annals of Sennacherib, King of Assyria, inscribed upon a cylinder, was not the least interesting of the monuments found under the direction of Sir Henry Rawlinson, whose name had already won its station—many years before his consulship Early at Baghdad—beside those of Grotefend, of Burnouf and of Lassen, in the roll of those scientific investigators by whose closet labours the researches and long gropings Cuhmfom of the Riches, the Bottas, and the Layards, were des- Tions. tined to be interpreted, illustrated, and fructified for the world of readers at large.

For it is not the least interesting fact in this particular and most richly-yielding field of Assyrian archaeology—that several men in Germany;—more than one man in France;—and one man, at least, in Persia, had been working simultaneously, but entirely without concert, at those hard and, for a time, almost barren studies which

LABOURERS
ON THE
DECIPHER-
ING OF

Book III,
Cliap. IV.
Another
Group Op
Archaeolo-
Gists And
Explorers.

The

Travels

AND RESearches Of Sir Chari.es Fellows In Lycia.

The AnaLogies AND The ConTrasts

BETWKEN

Fellows

AND

Layard.

were eventually to supply a master-key to vast libraries of inscriptions brought to light after an entombment of twentyfive hundred years.

Scarcely smaller than the debt of gratitude which Britain owes to Mr. La Yard and to Lord Stratford De Redcliffe, for the Marbles and other antiquities of Assyria, is the debt which she owes to the late Sir Charles Fellows for those of Lycia. Nor ought it to be passed over without remark that the admirably productive mission to the Levant of Mr. Charles Newton seems to have grown, in germ, out of the applications made at Constantinople on behalf of Sir Charles Fellows. In that merit he has but a very small share. The merit of the Lycian discoveries is all his own. He has now gone from amongst us,—like most of the benefactors whose public services have been recorded in this volume. How inadequate the record; how insufficient for the task the chronicler; no one will be so painfully conscious, as is the man whose hand—in the absence of a better hand—has here attempted the narrative. The Museum story has been long. What remains to be said must needs be put more briefly. But because Sir Charles Fellows has been so lately removed from the land he served with so much zeal and ability, I shall still venture to claim the indulgence of my readers for a somewhat detailed account of the work done in Lycia, and of the man who did it.

In one respect, it was with Charles Fellows as with Austen La Yard. A youthful passion for foreign travel, and what grew out of that, lifted each of them from obscurity into prominence. But Layard achieved fame at a much earlier age than did Sir Charles Fellows. Sir Charles was almost forty before his name came at all before the Public. Layard was already a personage at eight and Group Of Aech^oloGists And Explorers.

twenty. This small circumstantial difference between the Bookiii, fortune of two men whose pursuits in life were, for a time, Another so much alike, deserves to be kept in mind, on this account: Sir Charles lived scarcely long enough to see any fair appreciation of what he had accomplished. Even those whose political sympathies incline them to a belief that Mr. Layard's official services will never suffice to console Englishmen for the interruption of his archaeological services, hope that he may live long enough to enjoy a rich reward for the latter in their yearly-increasing estimation by his countrymen at large. They will delight to see the fervid member for Southwark utterly eclipsed in the fame of the great discoverer of long-entombed Assyria.

Sir Charles Fellows was the son of Mr. John Fellows, the

TRAVELS IN

of Nottingham. He was born in 1799. In the year 1837, Asiamtmoi, he set out upon a long tour in Asia Minor. Archaeological discovery no more formed any part of a preconcerted plan in Mr. Fellows' case than it did, two or three years afterwards, in Mr. Layard's. Both were led to undertake their respective explorations in a way that (for want of a more appropriate word) we are all accustomed to call 'accidental.'

In February, 1838, he found himself at Smyrna. After a good deal of observation of men and manners, he betook himself to an inspection of the buildings. He soon found j0„rmi that not a little of the modern Smyrna was built out of the TM"TMun ruins of the Smyrna of the old world. Busts, columns,

*> * * Asia Minor,

entablatures, of white marble and of ancient workmanship, Pp 8. sen

, ...... . . -ii (edit-1852)

were everywhere visible, in close admixture with the recently-quarried building-stone of the country and the period. But not only had the old marbles been built into the new edifices; they had been turned into tombstones.

AND WHAT

GREW

THEREOUT.

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Certain Jews, of an enterprising and practical turn of mind, had bought, in block, a whole hill-full of venerable marbles, in order to have an inexhaustible supply of new tombstones close at hand. In another part of the suburbs of the town, the walls of a large corn-field turned out, on close examination, to be built of thin and flat stones, of which the inner surface was formed of richly-patterned mosaic, black, white, and red. From that day, the traveller, wheresoever he journied, was a scrutinising archaeologist. And the traveller, thus equipped for his work, was busied, two months afterwards, in exploring that most interesting part of Asia Minor (a part now called 'Anadhouly'), which includes Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia, Phrygia, Pisidia, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Caria; and much of which was never before trodden— so far as is known, and the knowledge referred to is that of the best geographers in England, discussing this matter expressly, at a meeting of the Geographical Society—by the feet of any European.*

On the eighteenth of April, Mr. Fellows found himself in the romantically beautiful, but rugged and barren, neighbourhood of Antiphellus. The ancient town of that name possessed a theatre, and a multitude of temples, grandly placed on a far-outjutting promontory. For miles around, the rocks and the ravines were strewn with marble frag, ments. The face of the cliff, which, on one side, overhangs the town, was seen to be deeply indented with rock-tombs, richly adorned. They contained sarcophagi of a special

* And in which not a few readers will be sure to feel all the more interest, because of its sacred associations, when they call to mind those first-century travels of certain famous travellers who, 'after they had

passed throughout Pisidia, came to Pamphylia, and when they

had gone through Phrygia, . . . and were come to Mysia, assayed to go into Bythinia, but the Spirit suffered them not;'—having work for them to do in another quarter.

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