;y find that the men who had the honesty and resolution complain of such astonishing methods of instruction are ven away from Court, and the men who have dared to ch such doctrines are continued in trust and favour/* Making all allowance for partisan feeling and for that ge of Whig oligarchism which peeps out, as well in the y title, as in the contents of this 'Memorial,' there was rious truth in the denunciation, and a modicum of true 'phecy in the inference. But such a remonstrance had t as little effect, in the way of checking undue influences, t had of wisdom in the form given to it, or in the mode ts presentation at Court.

Phe Prince's education was not merely imbued with is and maxims little likely to conduce towards a prosDus reign. It was intellectually narrow and mean. He w up, for example, in utter ignorance of many of the it lights of English literature. In respect to all books, ; one (that, happily, the greatest of all), he became one hose who, through life, draw from the small cisterns.

Lord Harcourt resigned his office of Governor to the Prince at the aning of December, 1752. Scott, then the Prince's tutor, was nmended to his office by Bolingbroke. The Bishop of Peterugh's appointment as Preceptor was made in January, 1753. ng the books complained of, the Histoire de la Grande Bretagne ather Orleans, and the Introduction a la vie du Roi Henri IV of ler Jesuit, Father Perefixe, are said to have been included. Another nore famous book, which was much in Prince George's hands in his

years, was also obnoxious to the Whigs—Bolingbroke's Idea of a ot King. But it would scarcely have been prudent in the malcon

to have put a work which (whatever its faults) ranks, to some extent, g our English classics, in the same expurgatory, or prohibitory,

with the books of Orleans and of Perefixe. If George the Third ame harm out of Lord Bolingbroke's book, he probably obtained .ome good. Pure "Whiggism—pure but not simple—has never been . for any discriminating tolerance of spirit. And, in 1752, it was is at the prospect that the continuance of its long domination was •illed.

Book II,
Chap. IV.

King's Or

A Memorial,

&C; MS.

Addit. 6271, fol. 3.

Narrow Range OF Gkorge The Third's Tastes For Books.

Book Ii, instead of going to the deep wells. He seems to have to"' been trained to think that the literary glories of his country ^georgian- began with the age of Queen Anne, Libeaiy. In after years, George The Third attained to some dim consciousness of his own narrowness of culture. The ply, however, had been too early taken to be got rid of. No training, probably, could have made him a scholar. But his powers of application under wise direction would have opened to him stores of knowledge, from which unwise influences shut him out for life. His faculty of perseverance in study, it must be remembered, was backed by thorough honesty of nature, and by an ability to withstand temptations. When he was entering his nineteenth year, a subpreceptor, who had watched him sedulously, said of him: 'He is a lad of good principle. He has no heroic strain, and no turn for extravagance. He loves peace, and, as yet, has shown very virtuous principles. He has the greatest temptation to gallant with ladies, who lay themselves out in the most shameless manner to draw him on, but to no purpose.' Certainly this last characteristic was neither an inherited virtue nor an ancestral tradition. And it stands in curious contrast with the tendencies of all his brothers and of almost all his sons.

Prom youth upwards the Prince read much, though he did not read wisely. No sooner was he King than he began to set about the collection of his noble Library. In the choice of a librarian he was not infelicitous, though the selection was in part dictated by a feeling of brotherly kindness. For he chose a very near relative—Mr. afterwards Sir Frederick Augusta Barnard. Mr. Barnard had many qualities which fitted him for his task. TMTw The foundation of the Library was laid by a very fortuRotal Li- nate purchase on the Continent. Its increase was largely

BRARY. 1 O J omoted by a political revolution which ensued shortly Booxii,

erwards; and, m order to turn his large opportunities to The

jst account, the King's Librarian modestly sought and in- < Georgia"

intly obtained the best advice which that generation could LlBKAEY

brd him—the advice of Samuel Johnson.

In 1762, the fine Library of Joseph Smith, who had

en British Consul at Venice during many years, was

ught for the King. It cost about ten thousand pounds.

[ith had ransacked Italy for choice books, much as his

itemporary, Sir William Hamilton, had ransacked that

antry for choice vases. And he had been not less suc

isful in his quest. In amassing early and choice editions

the classics, and also the curiosities and rarities of eenth-century printing, he had been especially lucky, □m the same source, but at a later date, George The

Ird also obtained a fine gallery of pictures and a collec

n of coins and gems. For these he gave twenty thou

ld pounds. For seven or eight years the shops and vactyiMkna

rehouses of English booksellers were also sedulously 1767; Lady

imined, and large purchases were made from them. In uoZ^gu,

s labour Johnson often assisted, actively, as well as by L"'Z'- Qn

'J' J vol. ill, p. 80.


When the suppression of the Jesuits in many parts of rope made the literary treasures which that busy Society

I collected—often upon a princely scale and with admi)le taste, so far as their limitations permitted—both the

II g and his librarian were struck with the idea that 3ther fine opportunity opened itself for book-buying on : Continent. It was resolved that Mr. Barnard should vel for the purpose of profiting by it. Before he set t on his journey, he betook himself to Johnson for nisei as to the best way of setting about the task. Johnson's counsel maybe thus abridged: The litera(IF

Advice On
The Collec-
Tion Ok
The King's


Bookii, ture of every country may be best gathered on its native Thep 1V' soil. And the studies of the learned are everywhere influMjeoegitn' enced by peculiarities of government and of religion. In Li.eart. Jtaly you may, therefore, expect to meet with abundance of the works of the Canonists and the Schoolmen; in Germany with store of writers on the Feudal Laws; in Holland Substanc* you will find the booksellers' shops swarming with the works of the Civilians. Of Canonists a few of the most eminent will suffice. Of the Schoolmen a liberal supply will be a valuable addition to the King's Library. The departments of Feudal and Civil Law you can hardly render too complete. In the Feudal Constitutions we see the origin of our property laws. Of the Civil Law it is not too much to say that it is a regal study.

In respect to standard books generally, continued JohnSon, a Royal Library ought to have the earliest or most curious edition, the most sumptuous edition, and also the most useful one, which will commonly be one of the latest impressions of the book. As to the purchase of entire libraries in bulk, the Doctor inclined to think—even a century ago—that the inconvenience would commonly almost overbalance the advantage, on the score of the excessive accumulation of duplicate copies.

And then he added a remark which (long years afterwards) Sir Richard Colt Hoare profited by, and made a source of profit to our National Museum. 'I am told,' said Johnson, 'that scarcely a village of Italy wants its historian. And it will be of great use to collect, in every place, maps of the adjacent country, and plans of towns, buildings, and gardens. By this care you will form a more valuable body of geography than could otherwise be had.'

On that point—as, indeed, on all the points about which he gave advice—Johnson's counsel bore excellent fruit. bo°kii,

.... Chap. IV.

The 'body of geography' contained in the Georgian Library The has never, I think, been surpassed in any one Collection .9^",. (made by a single Collector) in the world. It laid, sub- LlBKAEI stantially, the foundation of the noble assemblage of charts and maps which now forms a separate Department of the Museum, under the able superintendence of Mr. Richard Henry Major, who has done much for the advancement of geographical knowledge in many paths, but in none more efficiently than in his Museum labours.

Like good counsel was given to Barnard by the great lexicographer, in relation to the gathering of illustrated books. He told the King's Librarian that he ought to seek diligently for old books adorned with woodcuts, because the designs were often those of great masters.

When to this remark the Doctor added the words: Johnsom',

ml 11' 1 111 • REMAEK ON

'Those old prints are such as cannot be made by any artist Modern n.now living/ he asserted what was undoubtedly true, if he B^n*TM limited that high praise to the best class of the works of which he was speaking. But his words carry in them also an indirect testimony of honour to George The Third. If, in the century which has passed since Samuel Johnson discussed with Frederick Barnard the wisest means of forming a Royal Library, a great stride has been made by the arts of design in Britain, a share of the merit belongs to the patriotic old King. He was amongst the earliest in his dominions to encourage British art with an open hand. He was not only the founder of the Royal Academy, but a most liberal patron to artists j and he did not limit his patronage to those men alone who belonged to his own Academy. If for a series of years the Royal Academy did less for Art, and did its work in a more narrow spirit of coterie than it ought to have done, the fault was not in the

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