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its fruit in the promotion of the objects of industry, may be expected from the knowledge of the fact, that hitherto, in consequence of the absence of such information in a collected form, the greatest difficulties have been experienced by commercial men in their endeavours to introduce into trade any new material of industrial importance, or to obtain adequate supplies of materials already known, —but known under a variety of changing, local and unintelligible terms. In the seventeenth century, Robert Boyle perceived the important results likely to arise from the " naturalist's insight into trades." It may be hoped that such results will now not fail of their accomplishment.

The smaller Catalogue is an abstract of the present work. It was prepared by ^'j'^j, condensing the revised and corrected slips forming the Illustrated Catalogue. For economy of space it was necessary to confine the descriptions in that work to an average length of three or four lines.

On the first announcement of a descriptive Catalogue, erroneous ideas as to its size prevailed, to so large an extent as to lead to the fear that a sufficiency of type of the kind required could scarcely be obtained within the necessary time. Statements appeared which gave birth to the opinion that such a work could not be contained in less than ten volumes of eight hundred pages each; and for a considerable time it seemed probable that at least three such volumes would be siw. required to complete this record of universal industry. It was soon rendered apparent that the estimates thus formed were incorrect. The articles exhibited by a large proportion of exhibitors—as in textile manufactures—were of a kind which did not admit of descriptions at length; and the returned forms of such articles were generally received written in the customary abbreviated language of commerce. In cases of another kind, where descriptions at greater length were not only admissible, but desirable, economy of space has been obtained by the adoption of a condensed style. The descriptive Catalogue has thus been reduced, notwithstanding the addition of annotations, to a convenient size.

That a work produced under the circumstances in which this Catalogue appears should contain inaccuracies, can less be cause of surprise than would its complete accuracy. One of the greatest obstacles to its correctness has been the delay of the return forms, which continued to arrive up to the period of going DeUyoffomis. to press, and the incompleteness of the arrangements of many of the exhibitors at the time when the work required to be prepared for issue. In its preparation, however, an attempt has been made to communicate to it a value enduring beyond that of the occasion of its production. The vast and wonderful accumulation of the products of human industry, of which it professes to be the exponent, is gathered only for a time. The intention of this Great Collection accomplished, and its objects realized, the industrial store must again be scattered among the nations contributing to its gathering. But this record of the history of the Great Exhibition must endure beyond the duration of the Exhibition itself. May it remain to indicate to other times the successful accomplishment of the greatest conception of our own, and the favour of the Divine Providence effecting that result.

Robert Ellis.

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Official revision and sanction for publication, by Lieut.-Colonel J. A. Lloyd.

Scientific Revision and Preparation by Robert Ellis, F.L.S.

Historical Introduction by Henry Cole.

Construction of the Building by M. Dioby Wyatt, C.E., F.IU.B.A.

Classification of Subjects in the Thirty Classes into which the Exhibition is divided,

by Dr. Lyon Playfair, F.R.S. Compilation by G. W. Yapp.

Technical information and assistance have also been rendered by Mr. G. Taylor, Mr. T. Battam, Mr. H. Maudslay, Professor Wallace, M.A., Mr. C. Tomlinson, Mr. John Graham, and other Gentlemen.

CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECTS IN THE THIRTY CLASSES INTO WHICH

THE EXHIBITION IS DIVIDED.

Clam. RAW MATERIALS.

I. Mining, Quarrying, Metallurgical Operations, and Mineral Products.
II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processes and Products generally.

III. Substances used for Food.

IV. Vegetable and Animal Substances, chiefly used in Manufactures, as Implements, or for Ornament.

MACHINERY.
V. Machines for direct use, including Carriages and Railway and Naval Mechanism.
VI. Manufacturing Machines and Tools.

VII. Civil Engineering, Architectural, and Building Contrivances.
VIII. Naval Architecture and Military Engineering; Ordnance, Armour, and Accoutrements.
IX. Agricultural and Horticultural Machines and Implements.

X. Philosophical Instruments and Processes depending upon their use; Musical, Horological, and
Surgical Instruments.

MANUFACTURES.
XI. Cotton.
XII. Woollen and Worsted.

XIII. Silk and Velvet.

XIV. Manufactures from Flax and Hemp.

XV. Mixed Fabrics, including Shawls, but exclusive of Worsted Goods (Class XII.). XVI. Leather, including Saddlery and Harness, Skins, Fur, Feathers, and Hair. XVII. Paper and Stationery, Printing and Bookbinding. XVIII. Woven, Spun, Felted, and laid Fabrics, when shown as specimens of Printing or Dyeing. XIX. Tapestry, including Carpets and Floor-cloths, Lace and Embroidery, Fancy and Industrial Works. XX. Articles of Clothing for immediate personal or domestic use. XXI. Cutlery and Edge Tools. XXII. Iron and General Hardware.

XXIII. Working in precious Metals, and in their imitation, Jewellery, and all articles of Virtu and Luxury,

not included in all other Classes.

XXIV. Glass.

XXV. Ceramic Manufactures, China, Porcelain, Earthenware, &c.
XXVI. Decoration Furniture and Upholstery, including Paper-hangings, Papier Macho", and Japanned

Goods.
XXVII. Manufactures in Mineral Substances, used for building or decoration, as in Marble, Slate, Porphyries,

Cements, Artificial Stones, &c. XXVIII. Manufactures from Animal and Vegetable Substances, not being Woven or Felted, or included in other Sections. XXIX. Miscellaneous Manufactures and Small Wares.

FINE ARTS. XXX. Sculpture, Models, and Plastic Art.

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I. Mining, Quarrying, Metallurgical Operations, and Mineral Products.

A. Making And Quarrying Operations.

1. Quarries and open workings.

2. Streaming; washing alluvial deposits.

3. Mines worked on the lode.

a. Sinking of shafts,
ft. Cutting adits.
c. Driving levels.

4. Mines worked on the bed.

a. Sinking shafts,
ft. Driving levels.
c. Cutting stalls or headings

5. Salt deposits.

6. Ventilation; Safety Lamps, and other modes of

Lighting.

7. Methods of raising Men, Ore, and Water.

a. Raising Ore.

ft. Lowering and raising Miners.

c. Draining.

B. Geological Maps, Plans, And Sections.

C. Ores And Metallurgical Operations.

1. Ores and the Methods of dressing and rendering Ores

merchantable. a. Ores of the more common Metals, as of Iron,

Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead. 6. Native Metals, as Gold, Silver, Copper, &c. c. Ores used for various purposes, without reduction, as Peroxide of Manganese, &c.

2. Methods of roasting, smelting, or otherwise reducing

Ores.

a. The common Metals, as Iron, Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead.

6. The Metals more generally used in combination, as Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Cadmium, Cobalt, Nickel, &c.

3. Methods of preparing for use the nobler Metals, as

Gold, Silver, Mercury, Palladium, Platinum, &c.

4. Adaptation of Metals to special purposes.

a. Metals in various chemical states, as Iron in the condition of Cast and Malleable Iron, Steel, &c.

ft. Metals in their progress to finished Manufactures, as Pigs and Ingots, Sheets, Bars, Wires, &c.

5. Alloys, and methods of rendering more generally

useful Metals and their alloys — a. Statuary, Bronze, Gun, Bell, and Speculum Metals, b, Brass, and alloys used as a substitute for it.

c. White alloys, as Britannia Metal, German Silver,

Pewter, fee.

d. Type, Sheathing Metals, and other alloys.

D. Nos-metallic Mineral Products.

1. Minerals used as Fuel—

a. All kinds of Coal and derived products.

ft. Lignite and Peat „ „

c. Bituminous bodies and native Naphtha.

2. Massive Minerals used in construction.

a. For purposes of construction generally—

Siliceous or Calcareous Free Stones and Flags.

Granites, porphyritic and basaltic Rocks.

Slates. 6. For purposes of Ornament, Decoration, and the Fine Arts—

Marbles.

Alabaster, Spar, ice.

Serpentine and other hard rocks susceptible of high polish. c. Cements and Artificial Stones—

Calcareous and Hydraulic Cements.

Puzzuolanas, Trass, &c.

Gypsum for plaster.

Artificial Stones.

3. Minerals used in the manufacture of Pottery and

GlassSands, Limestones, &c, for Glass-making. Various Clays and fclspathic Minerals, as those used for Bricks, Tiles, and various kinds of Pottery and Porcelain. Siliceous, Calcareous, and other Minerals, used in Plastic Arts.

4. Minerals used for personal Ornaments, or for Me

chanical and scientific purposes. a. Gems and Precious Stones.

6. Models of Minerals and Crystals, kc. c. Collections of Minerals for scientific or educational use. 5. Minerals used in various Arts and Manufactures. a. Simple bodies or compounds containing the Alkalis or Alkaline Earths— Those used principally for culinary purposes or for Medicine, as Salt, Mineral Waters, kc. Those used in various manufactures, as Sulphur, Borax, Sec. ft. Earthy and semi-crystalline Minerals.

Minerals used for grinding and polishing, as
Grindstones, Honestones, Emery, &c.
Lithographic Stones, Drawing Chalks, and

Slate Pencils.
Graphite.

Earthy and other Minerals used as pigments, or for staining, dyeing, and colouring. Various Minerals used in Manufactures; as Alum schist, Fuller's Earth, French Chalk, Casting Sands, &c. 6. Soils and Mineral Manures.

II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processes and Products generally. A. Chemical Substances Used In Manufacture. 1. From the Mineral Kingdom. a. Non-metallic substances.

Those used principally in their elementary
state, as Sulphur, Phosphorus, tic.
Acids, as Sulphuric, Muriatic, Nitric, Boracic,
&c.
Miscellaneous Manufactures, as Sulphuret of
Carbon, Chloride of Sulphur, he.
b. Alkalies, Earths, and their compounds.

Alkalies and their Alkaline salts, as Soda, Pot-
ash, Ammonia, and the Carbonates, kc.
Neutral Salts of the Alkalies, as Sulphate, Ni-
trate of Soda, Saltpetre, Borax, &c.
Earths and their compounds, as Lime, Mag-
nesia, Barytes, Strontia, Alumina, &c.

c. The compounds of Metals proper, as Salts of

Iron, Copper, Lead, he.
d. Mixed Chemical Manufactures, as Prussiate of
Potash, &c.

2. From the Organic Kingdom, and not included in

Sections III. and IV.

3. Manufactured Pigments, Dyes, and miscellaneous

Chemical Manufactures. (See also Section IV.) a. Pigments employed In House Decoration, and

for colouringWoods. ft. Pigments used for Textile Fabrics, e. Pigments used for Paper Hangings, and for

felted and laid Fabrics generally.

d. Artists' Colours.

e. Miscellaneous Chemical Manufactures.

B. Rarer Chemical Substances, Manufactured Chiefly

FOR THE USE OF THE SCIENTIFIC CHEMIST.

1. From Substances of the Mineral Kingdom.

2. ,, Vegetable ,,

3. ,, Animal ,,

C. Chemical Substances Used In Medicine And In Phar

Macy.

1. From the Mineral Kingdom.

a. Non-metallic substances and their compounds,
ft. Alkalies, Earths, and their compounds.
c. Metallic Preparations.

2. From the Vegetable Kingdom, when shown for

Pharmaceutical purposes. (See also Sections III, and IV.) a. Vegetable Infusions, Decoctions, and Solutions,

clear or saccharine.
6. Tinctures.

c. Extracts and Inspissated Juices.
d, Resins, Gum Resins, and Oleo Resins and

Balsams.
e. Aloes, kc.

/. Gums as Acacia, Tragacanth, &c.
g. Essential Oils, Cajeput, Sovine, Turpentine, &c.
A. Fixed Oils, as Castor, Croton, Almond, Olive, kc.
i. Vegetable parts, as leaves of Digitalis, Hemlock,

roots of Jalap, Ipecacuanha, &c.
j. Barks as imported, Cinchona, Cascarilla, Cus-

paria, kc.

A. Vogeto-Alkalies, their salts and other Crystalline principles of medicinal substances.

/. Vegetable Acids.

m. Miscellaneous Compounds. 3. From the Animal Kingdom.

a. Cod-liver and other Animal Oils for internal or external application.

A. Unguents of Spermaceti, Lard, Oil, and combinations of them.

c. Antispasmodics, as Musk, Castorcum, Civet, Ambergris, &c.

D. Phosphorus, Ammonia, and their products.

e. Irritants, as Cantharides.

f. Antacids, as Crabs'-eyes, Calcareous concretions

of the Craw-fish, Cuttle-bone, &c.

III. Substances used as Food.
VEGETABLE KINGDOM.

A. Agricultural ProduceCereals, Pulses, Oil Seeds,

Etc.

1. Common European Cereals

2. Cereals more rarely cultivated in Europe.

3. Millet and other small Grains used as food.

4. Pulses and Cattle Food.

5. Grasses, Fodder Plants, and Agricultural Roots.

6. The Flours or preparations of the above classes.

7. Oil Seeds and their Cakes.

8. Hops and other aromatic plants used for like pur

poses.

B. Dried Fruit And Seeds.

1. Raisins, Currants, Figs, Plums, Cherries, Apricots, &c.

2. Dates, Tamarind, Dried Bananas, &c.

3. Almonds, Chestnuts, Walnuts, &c.

4. Cocoa-nuts, &c.

C. Substances Used In The Preparation Of Drinks.

1. Real Teas of all kinds.

2. Substitute for Teas, as Paraguay, Arabian, Ben

coolin, &c.

3. Coffee of all kinds, and Cocoa Seeds and Nibs.

4. Various substances, as Chicory Roots, Amande de

Terre, Guarana Bread, &c.

D. Intoxicating Drugs, Fermented Liquors, And Dis

Tilled Spirits From Unusual Sources.

1. Fermented Liquors and Spirits from unusual sources.

2. Tobacco.

3. Opium.

4. Hemp, and other Intoxicating Drugs.

E. Spices and Condiments.

1. Cinnamon, Cassia, and their substitutes.

2. Nutmegs and Mace; Cloves and Cassia Buds.

3. Peppers, Capsicum, Mustard, Vanilla, Pimento, Car

damums, &c.

4. Ginger, Turmeric, &c.

F. Starch Series.

1. Starches of all kinds prepared from Wheat, Rice,

Potatoes, Maize, &c.

2. Arrowroots of all kinds, Tous les Mois.

3. Sagos from the Palms, Cassava, Tapioca, &c.

4. Lichens of all kinds.

5. Other Starchy Substances, as Portland Sago from

Arum Maculatum, and from various like plants.

G. Sugar Series.

1. Sugars from the Cane and Beet.

,, Maple and Palms.

,, Birch, Poplar, Oak, and Ash.

Grape Sugar.

2. Liquorice, Sarcocoll, &c.

ANIMAL KINGDOM.

II. Animal Food And Preparations Of Food As IndusTrial Products.

1. Specimens of preserved McatB.

2. Portable Soups, and concentrated nutriment, as con

solidated Milk, &c.

3. Caviare, Trepang, &c.

4. Articles of Eastern commerce, as Shark Fins, Nest of

the Java Swallow, &c.

5. Honey and its preparations.

6. Blood and its preparations.

7. Industrial Products, as Glue, Gelatine, Isinglass,

Gluten, &c.

IV. Vegetable and Animal Substances, chiefly used in

Manufactures, as Implements, or for Ornaments.

VEGETABLE.

A. Gum And Resin Series.

1. Guns of all kinds of natural occurrence—

Gums made artificially, as British Gum.
Mucilaginous Seeds, Barks, Pods, and Seaweeds.

2. Resins—

Resins and Balsams of all kinds.
Gum Resins.

Gum Elastics and Gutta Percha.
Distilled Resins and Varnishes.

B. Oil Series.

1. Volatile Oils, including Camphor.

2. Drying Fat Oils.

3. Non-drying Fat Oils.

4. Solid Oils.

5. Wax.

6. Distilled Fat Oils.

C. Acts, As Acetic, Citric, Tartaric, Oxalic, &c.

D. Dyes And Colours.

1. Indigos.

2. Madders.

3. Lichens and their preparations.

4. Dyeing Barks, as Acacias, Quercitron, Mangrove, &c

5. AV oods, as Logwood, Brazil wood, Peach wood, Fus

tics, &c

6. Flowers and Berries, as Persian Berries, SafHowcr,

Saffron.

7. Miscellaneous, as Turmeric, &c.

E. Tanning Substances.

1. Pods, Berries, Seeds, and Fruit, of various kinds, as

Atgaroab, Acacia, Nib-nib and DiviMivi Pods, &c.

2. Barks of various kinds, os Barks of the Babool, Bra

zilian Acacias, Muriel, Bucida, Gordouia.

3. Galls, and similar Tanning Materials.

4. Catechu, Kino, Gambeer, &c.

F. Fibrous Substances, Including Materials For Cordage

And Clothing.

1. Cottons of all kinds.

2. Hemp and Flax; Manilla Hemp and New Zealand

Flax.

3. China Grass, Nettle Fibre, Plantain, and Pino Ap

ple Fibre.

4. Sunn, Jute, and other tropical substitutes for Hemp,

Flax.

5. Coir, or Cocoa-Nut Fibre, Gomuti, fcc.
G. Rushes and Miscellaneous Substances.

G. Cellular Substances.

1. Corks of all kinds.

2. Woods and Roots used for Corks, as tho Ochroma

layopus and Anona paiustris

3. Rice-paper of China.

4. Birch Bark, Pottery Bark, Citrus Rind, &c.

5. Substances used as Amadou.

H. Timber And Fancy Woods Used For Construction And Ornament, And Prepared By Dyeing.

1. Suited chiefly for purposes of construction, or for

the Navy.

2. Suited chiefly for Ornamental Work.

3. Prepared Woods, as by Kyan's, Payne's, Bethell's,

and Boucherie s processes.

I. Miscellaneous Substances.

1. Substances used as Soap, as Quillai Bark, Soap Ber

ries (Sapindta saponaria), Soap Roots (Saponaria officinalis, Sec).

2. Perfumes, asPucha Pot, Vetiver, Spikenard, Tonka

beans, &c.

3. Substances used mechanically, as Teazels, Dutch

Rushes, &c.

4. Seeds and fruits used for Ornamental purposes, as

Ganitrus Beads, the Ivory Nut, the Doom Palm,
Coquilla Nuts, Bottle Gourds, &c

ANIMAL.

J. For Textile Fabrics And Clothixo.

1. Wool, Hair, Bristles, Whalebones.

2. Silk from the Silk-worm Sombyx Mori, and from

other species in India, e. g. Hombycilla Cynthia and Attaciis Paphia.

3. Feather, Down, Fur, Skins.

4. Miscellaneous.

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