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its fruit in the promotion of the objects of industry, may be expected from the knowledge of the fact, that hitherto, in consequence of the absence of such information in a collected form, the greatest difficulties have been experienced by commercial men in their endeavours to introduce into trade any new material of industrial importance, or to obtain adequate supplies of materials already known, —but known under a variety of changing, local and unintelligible terms. In the seventeenth century, Robert Boyle perceived the important results likely to arise from the " naturalist's insight into trades." It may be hoped that such results will now not fail of their accomplishment.
The smaller Catalogue is an abstract of the present work. It was prepared by ^'j'^j, condensing the revised and corrected slips forming the Illustrated Catalogue. For economy of space it was necessary to confine the descriptions in that work to an average length of three or four lines.
On the first announcement of a descriptive Catalogue, erroneous ideas as to its size prevailed, to so large an extent as to lead to the fear that a sufficiency of type of the kind required could scarcely be obtained within the necessary time. Statements appeared which gave birth to the opinion that such a work could not be contained in less than ten volumes of eight hundred pages each; and for a considerable time it seemed probable that at least three such volumes would be siw. required to complete this record of universal industry. It was soon rendered apparent that the estimates thus formed were incorrect. The articles exhibited by a large proportion of exhibitors—as in textile manufactures—were of a kind which did not admit of descriptions at length; and the returned forms of such articles were generally received written in the customary abbreviated language of commerce. In cases of another kind, where descriptions at greater length were not only admissible, but desirable, economy of space has been obtained by the adoption of a condensed style. The descriptive Catalogue has thus been reduced, notwithstanding the addition of annotations, to a convenient size.
That a work produced under the circumstances in which this Catalogue appears should contain inaccuracies, can less be cause of surprise than would its complete accuracy. One of the greatest obstacles to its correctness has been the delay of the return forms, which continued to arrive up to the period of going DeUyoffomis. to press, and the incompleteness of the arrangements of many of the exhibitors at the time when the work required to be prepared for issue. In its preparation, however, an attempt has been made to communicate to it a value enduring beyond that of the occasion of its production. The vast and wonderful accumulation of the products of human industry, of which it professes to be the exponent, is gathered only for a time. The intention of this Great Collection accomplished, and its objects realized, the industrial store must again be scattered among the nations contributing to its gathering. But this record of the history of the Great Exhibition must endure beyond the duration of the Exhibition itself. May it remain to indicate to other times the successful accomplishment of the greatest conception of our own, and the favour of the Divine Providence effecting that result.
Official revision and sanction for publication, by Lieut.-Colonel J. A. Lloyd.
Scientific Revision and Preparation by Robert Ellis, F.L.S.
Historical Introduction by Henry Cole.
Construction of the Building by M. Dioby Wyatt, C.E., F.IU.B.A.
Classification of Subjects in the Thirty Classes into which the Exhibition is divided,
by Dr. Lyon Playfair, F.R.S. Compilation by G. W. Yapp.
Technical information and assistance have also been rendered by Mr. G. Taylor, Mr. T. Battam, Mr. H. Maudslay, Professor Wallace, M.A., Mr. C. Tomlinson, Mr. John Graham, and other Gentlemen.
CLASSIFICATION OF SUBJECTS IN THE THIRTY CLASSES INTO WHICH
THE EXHIBITION IS DIVIDED.
Clam. RAW MATERIALS.
I. Mining, Quarrying, Metallurgical Operations, and Mineral Products.
III. Substances used for Food.
IV. Vegetable and Animal Substances, chiefly used in Manufactures, as Implements, or for Ornament.
VII. Civil Engineering, Architectural, and Building Contrivances.
X. Philosophical Instruments and Processes depending upon their use; Musical, Horological, and
XIII. Silk and Velvet.
XIV. Manufactures from Flax and Hemp.
XV. Mixed Fabrics, including Shawls, but exclusive of Worsted Goods (Class XII.). XVI. Leather, including Saddlery and Harness, Skins, Fur, Feathers, and Hair. XVII. Paper and Stationery, Printing and Bookbinding. XVIII. Woven, Spun, Felted, and laid Fabrics, when shown as specimens of Printing or Dyeing. XIX. Tapestry, including Carpets and Floor-cloths, Lace and Embroidery, Fancy and Industrial Works. XX. Articles of Clothing for immediate personal or domestic use. XXI. Cutlery and Edge Tools. XXII. Iron and General Hardware.
XXIII. Working in precious Metals, and in their imitation, Jewellery, and all articles of Virtu and Luxury,
not included in all other Classes.
XXV. Ceramic Manufactures, China, Porcelain, Earthenware, &c.
Cements, Artificial Stones, &c. XXVIII. Manufactures from Animal and Vegetable Substances, not being Woven or Felted, or included in other Sections. XXIX. Miscellaneous Manufactures and Small Wares.
FINE ARTS. XXX. Sculpture, Models, and Plastic Art.
I. Mining, Quarrying, Metallurgical Operations, and Mineral Products.
A. Making And Quarrying Operations.
1. Quarries and open workings.
2. Streaming; washing alluvial deposits.
3. Mines worked on the lode.
a. Sinking of shafts,
4. Mines worked on the bed.
a. Sinking shafts,
5. Salt deposits.
6. Ventilation; Safety Lamps, and other modes of
7. Methods of raising Men, Ore, and Water.
a. Raising Ore.
ft. Lowering and raising Miners.
B. Geological Maps, Plans, And Sections.
C. Ores And Metallurgical Operations.
1. Ores and the Methods of dressing and rendering Ores
merchantable. a. Ores of the more common Metals, as of Iron,
Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead. 6. Native Metals, as Gold, Silver, Copper, &c. c. Ores used for various purposes, without reduction, as Peroxide of Manganese, &c.
2. Methods of roasting, smelting, or otherwise reducing
a. The common Metals, as Iron, Copper, Zinc, Tin, Lead.
6. The Metals more generally used in combination, as Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Cadmium, Cobalt, Nickel, &c.
3. Methods of preparing for use the nobler Metals, as
Gold, Silver, Mercury, Palladium, Platinum, &c.
4. Adaptation of Metals to special purposes.
a. Metals in various chemical states, as Iron in the condition of Cast and Malleable Iron, Steel, &c.
ft. Metals in their progress to finished Manufactures, as Pigs and Ingots, Sheets, Bars, Wires, &c.
5. Alloys, and methods of rendering more generally
useful Metals and their alloys — a. Statuary, Bronze, Gun, Bell, and Speculum Metals, b, Brass, and alloys used as a substitute for it.
c. White alloys, as Britannia Metal, German Silver,
d. Type, Sheathing Metals, and other alloys.
D. Nos-metallic Mineral Products.
1. Minerals used as Fuel—
a. All kinds of Coal and derived products.
ft. Lignite and Peat „ „
c. Bituminous bodies and native Naphtha.
2. Massive Minerals used in construction.
a. For purposes of construction generally—
Siliceous or Calcareous Free Stones and Flags.
Granites, porphyritic and basaltic Rocks.
Slates. 6. For purposes of Ornament, Decoration, and the Fine Arts—
Alabaster, Spar, ice.
Serpentine and other hard rocks susceptible of high polish. c. Cements and Artificial Stones—
Calcareous and Hydraulic Cements.
Puzzuolanas, Trass, &c.
Gypsum for plaster.
3. Minerals used in the manufacture of Pottery and
GlassSands, Limestones, &c, for Glass-making. Various Clays and fclspathic Minerals, as those used for Bricks, Tiles, and various kinds of Pottery and Porcelain. Siliceous, Calcareous, and other Minerals, used in Plastic Arts.
4. Minerals used for personal Ornaments, or for Me
chanical and scientific purposes. a. Gems and Precious Stones.
6. Models of Minerals and Crystals, kc. c. Collections of Minerals for scientific or educational use. 5. Minerals used in various Arts and Manufactures. a. Simple bodies or compounds containing the Alkalis or Alkaline Earths— Those used principally for culinary purposes or for Medicine, as Salt, Mineral Waters, kc. Those used in various manufactures, as Sulphur, Borax, Sec. ft. Earthy and semi-crystalline Minerals.
Minerals used for grinding and polishing, as
Earthy and other Minerals used as pigments, or for staining, dyeing, and colouring. Various Minerals used in Manufactures; as Alum schist, Fuller's Earth, French Chalk, Casting Sands, &c. 6. Soils and Mineral Manures.
II. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Processes and Products generally. A. Chemical Substances Used In Manufacture. 1. From the Mineral Kingdom. a. Non-metallic substances.
Those used principally in their elementary
Alkalies and their Alkaline salts, as Soda, Pot-
c. The compounds of Metals proper, as Salts of
Iron, Copper, Lead, he.
2. From the Organic Kingdom, and not included in
Sections III. and IV.
3. Manufactured Pigments, Dyes, and miscellaneous
Chemical Manufactures. (See also Section IV.) a. Pigments employed In House Decoration, and
for colouringWoods. ft. Pigments used for Textile Fabrics, e. Pigments used for Paper Hangings, and for
felted and laid Fabrics generally.
d. Artists' Colours.
e. Miscellaneous Chemical Manufactures.
B. Rarer Chemical Substances, Manufactured Chiefly
FOR THE USE OF THE SCIENTIFIC CHEMIST.
1. From Substances of the Mineral Kingdom.
2. ,, Vegetable ,,
3. ,, Animal ,,
C. Chemical Substances Used In Medicine And In Phar
1. From the Mineral Kingdom.
a. Non-metallic substances and their compounds,
2. From the Vegetable Kingdom, when shown for
Pharmaceutical purposes. (See also Sections III, and IV.) a. Vegetable Infusions, Decoctions, and Solutions,
clear or saccharine.
c. Extracts and Inspissated Juices.
/. Gums as Acacia, Tragacanth, &c.
roots of Jalap, Ipecacuanha, &c.
A. Vogeto-Alkalies, their salts and other Crystalline principles of medicinal substances.
/. Vegetable Acids.
m. Miscellaneous Compounds. 3. From the Animal Kingdom.
a. Cod-liver and other Animal Oils for internal or external application.
A. Unguents of Spermaceti, Lard, Oil, and combinations of them.
c. Antispasmodics, as Musk, Castorcum, Civet, Ambergris, &c.
D. Phosphorus, Ammonia, and their products.
e. Irritants, as Cantharides.
f. Antacids, as Crabs'-eyes, Calcareous concretions
of the Craw-fish, Cuttle-bone, &c.
III. Substances used as Food.
A. Agricultural Produce—Cereals, Pulses, Oil Seeds,
1. Common European Cereals
2. Cereals more rarely cultivated in Europe.
3. Millet and other small Grains used as food.
4. Pulses and Cattle Food.
5. Grasses, Fodder Plants, and Agricultural Roots.
6. The Flours or preparations of the above classes.
7. Oil Seeds and their Cakes.
8. Hops and other aromatic plants used for like pur
B. Dried Fruit And Seeds.
1. Raisins, Currants, Figs, Plums, Cherries, Apricots, &c.
2. Dates, Tamarind, Dried Bananas, &c.
3. Almonds, Chestnuts, Walnuts, &c.
4. Cocoa-nuts, &c.
C. Substances Used In The Preparation Of Drinks.
1. Real Teas of all kinds.
2. Substitute for Teas, as Paraguay, Arabian, Ben
3. Coffee of all kinds, and Cocoa Seeds and Nibs.
4. Various substances, as Chicory Roots, Amande de
Terre, Guarana Bread, &c.
D. Intoxicating Drugs, Fermented Liquors, And Dis
Tilled Spirits From Unusual Sources.
1. Fermented Liquors and Spirits from unusual sources.
4. Hemp, and other Intoxicating Drugs.
E. Spices and Condiments.
1. Cinnamon, Cassia, and their substitutes.
2. Nutmegs and Mace; Cloves and Cassia Buds.
3. Peppers, Capsicum, Mustard, Vanilla, Pimento, Car
4. Ginger, Turmeric, &c.
F. Starch Series.
1. Starches of all kinds prepared from Wheat, Rice,
Potatoes, Maize, &c.
2. Arrowroots of all kinds, Tous les Mois.
3. Sagos from the Palms, Cassava, Tapioca, &c.
4. Lichens of all kinds.
5. Other Starchy Substances, as Portland Sago from
Arum Maculatum, and from various like plants.
G. Sugar Series.
1. Sugars from the Cane and Beet.
,, Maple and Palms.
,, Birch, Poplar, Oak, and Ash.
2. Liquorice, Sarcocoll, &c.
II. Animal Food And Preparations Of Food As IndusTrial Products.
1. Specimens of preserved McatB.
2. Portable Soups, and concentrated nutriment, as con
solidated Milk, &c.
3. Caviare, Trepang, &c.
4. Articles of Eastern commerce, as Shark Fins, Nest of
the Java Swallow, &c.
5. Honey and its preparations.
6. Blood and its preparations.
7. Industrial Products, as Glue, Gelatine, Isinglass,
IV. Vegetable and Animal Substances, chiefly used in
Manufactures, as Implements, or for Ornaments.
A. Gum And Resin Series.
1. Guns of all kinds of natural occurrence—
Gums made artificially, as British Gum.
Resins and Balsams of all kinds.
Gum Elastics and Gutta Percha.
B. Oil Series.
1. Volatile Oils, including Camphor.
2. Drying Fat Oils.
3. Non-drying Fat Oils.
4. Solid Oils.
6. Distilled Fat Oils.
C. Acts, As Acetic, Citric, Tartaric, Oxalic, &c.
D. Dyes And Colours.
3. Lichens and their preparations.
4. Dyeing Barks, as Acacias, Quercitron, Mangrove, &c
5. AV oods, as Logwood, Brazil wood, Peach wood, Fus
6. Flowers and Berries, as Persian Berries, SafHowcr,
7. Miscellaneous, as Turmeric, &c.
E. Tanning Substances.
1. Pods, Berries, Seeds, and Fruit, of various kinds, as
Atgaroab, Acacia, Nib-nib and DiviMivi Pods, &c.
2. Barks of various kinds, os Barks of the Babool, Bra
zilian Acacias, Muriel, Bucida, Gordouia.
3. Galls, and similar Tanning Materials.
4. Catechu, Kino, Gambeer, &c.
F. Fibrous Substances, Including Materials For Cordage
1. Cottons of all kinds.
2. Hemp and Flax; Manilla Hemp and New Zealand
3. China Grass, Nettle Fibre, Plantain, and Pino Ap
4. Sunn, Jute, and other tropical substitutes for Hemp,
5. Coir, or Cocoa-Nut Fibre, Gomuti, fcc.
G. Cellular Substances.
1. Corks of all kinds.
2. Woods and Roots used for Corks, as tho Ochroma
layopus and Anona paiustris
3. Rice-paper of China.
4. Birch Bark, Pottery Bark, Citrus Rind, &c.
5. Substances used as Amadou.
H. Timber And Fancy Woods Used For Construction And Ornament, And Prepared By Dyeing.
1. Suited chiefly for purposes of construction, or for
2. Suited chiefly for Ornamental Work.
3. Prepared Woods, as by Kyan's, Payne's, Bethell's,
and Boucherie s processes.
I. Miscellaneous Substances.
1. Substances used as Soap, as Quillai Bark, Soap Ber
ries (Sapindta saponaria), Soap Roots (Saponaria officinalis, Sec).
2. Perfumes, asPucha Pot, Vetiver, Spikenard, Tonka
3. Substances used mechanically, as Teazels, Dutch
4. Seeds and fruits used for Ornamental purposes, as
Ganitrus Beads, the Ivory Nut, the Doom Palm,
J. For Textile Fabrics And Clothixo.
1. Wool, Hair, Bristles, Whalebones.
2. Silk from the Silk-worm Sombyx Mori, and from
other species in India, e. g. Hombycilla Cynthia and Attaciis Paphia.
3. Feather, Down, Fur, Skins.