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From the twenty-second day the prices of admission will be as follows:—
On Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays in
each week . . . . . . . . Is. Od.
On Fridays . . . . . . . . 2s. 6d.
On Saturdays . . . . . . . . 5s. Od.
No change will be given at the doors. This regulation is necessary to prevent the inconvenience and confusion which would arise from interruption or delay at the entrances. Should experience in the progress of the Exhibition render any alteration in these arrangements necessary, the Commissioners reserve to themselves the power of making such modifications as may appear desirable, of which due and timely notice, however, will be given to the public. At the first opening of the Exhibition, the hours of admission were fixed from 10 A.m. till 6 P.M.
Upon the question how far, and in what instances, any parties should be furnished with free admissions, the Committee reported,—
That it is very desirable that that privilege should be restricted to as few cases as possible, and feeling the importance of carrying out to the greatest practicable extent a regulation of this nature, they would submit whether it might not be expedient that the Commissioners should place themselves in the same position as the public in general with regard to the admission to the Exhibition. The members of the Executive Committee have expressed their wish to subject themselves to the same conditions as the Royal Commissioners in this respect.
The following are the cases in which the Committee would recommend that an exception to the general rule should be made, and free admissions granted:—
1st. Persons in the employment of, and provided with tickets issued by the Executive Committee, such as the heads of sectional departments, the clerks, the watchers, the cleaners, the Police, the Sappers and Miners. 2nd. Servants of Foreign Commissioners and of exhibitors admitted under the provisions of the 14th published decision of the Commissioners for the purpose of watching the goods sent by their employers, or explaining them to visitors; such servants being provided with tickets issued by the Executive Committee under strict regulations to be hereafter laid down. 3. The press, both metropolitan and provincial; the tickets in both cases admitting the editor or his representative. 4th. The juries, on the production of tickets that have been issued and registered by the Executive Committee, on certain days to be hereafter fixed by the Executive Committee.
And the power of carrying these rules into effect was given to the Executive Committee.
The inauguration of the Exhibition took place on 1st May, in accordance with the arrangements laid down in the accompanying document, which was published by the Commissioners:—
Her Majesty having signified her royal pleasure that arrangements should be made to enable Her Majesty to gratify a wish very generally expressed on the part of the public, to be present at a ceremony by which Her Majesty should open the Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations, on the 1st of May, Her Majesty's Commissioners hereby give notice that the programme of this ceremony, and the regulations under which the holders of season tickets will be admitted, are as follow :—
Exhibitors' attendants who have been sanctioned by the Executive Committee will be admitted between the hours of 8 and 9 o'clock, at doors specified on their cards, and will immediately take their places by the counters or objects exhibited by their employers.
Holders of season tickets will be admitted at all doors on the east, south, and west of the building, between the hours of 9 and half-past 11 o'clock, and will be allowed to take their places, subject to police regulations, in the lower part of the building, and in the galleries, except the parts railed off in the nave and transept,
A platform will be raised to the north of the centre of the transept, on which a chair of state will be placed.
Her Majesty's Commissioners will assemble at half-past 11 o'clock in the transept, opposite the platform, together with their Executive Committee and the Foreign Acting Commissioners, in full dress or in plain evening dress.
His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, Her Majesty's Ministers, the great Officers of State, and the Foreign Ambassadors and Ministers, will take their places on the platform to the right and left of the chair of state, in full dress, also at half-past 11 o'clock.
Her Majesty, proceeding in State, with the royal family, foreign guests, &c., and her and their suites from Buckingham Palace up Constitution Hill, and down Rotten Row, will enter the Exhibition building by the north entrance precisely at 12 o'clock. She will ascend the platform and take her seat in the chair of state.
On Her Majesty's arrival a choir will sing " God Save the Queen."
On the Queen taking her seat His Royal Highness Prince Albert will join the Royal Commissioners, and when the music has ceased proceed at their head to the platform, and read to Her Majesty a short report of the proceedings of the Commission up to that time, which he will then deliver to Her Majesty, together with the catalogue of the articles exhibited. Her Majesty will return a gracious answer, handed to her by the Secretary of State; after which His Royal Highness Prince Albert will take his place again by the side of Her Majesty.
His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury will then say a prayer, invoking God's blessing upon the undertaking, followed by a short anthem sung by the choir.
A Royal procession will then be formed, preceded by the Commissioners, which will turn to the right, move to the west end of the nave by its north side, return to the east end of the nave by its south side, including the south end of the transept, and come back to the centre along the north side of the nave; thus enabling all those present, who will be expected to keep the places which have been assigned to them, to see Her Majesty and the procession.
During the procession the organs appointed will play marches, taking the music up at the Queen's approach.
On Her Majesty's return to the platform the Queen will declare "the Exhibition opened;" which will be announced to the public by a flourish of trumpets and the firing of a Royal Salute on the north of the Serpentine; whereupon the barriers, which had kept the nave clear, will be thrown open, and the public will be allowed to circulate.
Her Majesty will then return to Buckingham Palace by the route by which she came.
All the doors, which will have been closed at half-past eleven o'clock, will, upon Her Majesty's departure, be opened again.
Principle, on In announcing the Prizes, the Commissioners laid down certain general prin
Ut ciples for the guidance of the Juries, which they published as follows:—
In the department of Raw Materials And Produce, for instance, prizes will be awarded upon a consideration of the value and importance of the article, and the superior excellence of the particular specimens exhibited; and in the case of prepared materials, coming under this head of the Exhibition, the Juries will take into account the novelty and importance of the prepared product, and the superior skill and ingenuity manifested in the process of preparation.
In the department of Machinery, the prizes will be given with reference to novelty in the invention, superiority in the execution, increased efficiency, or increased economy, in the
w Inch the prizes were atrvi
use of the article exhibited. The importance, in a social or other point of view, of the purposes to which the article is to be applied, will also be taken into consideration, as will also the amount of the difficulties overcome in bringing the invention to perfection.
In the department of Manufactures, those articles will be rewarded which fulfil in the highest degree the conditions specified in the sectional list, viz.:—Increased usefulness, such as permanency in dyes, improved forms and arrangements in articles of utility, &c. Superior quality, or superior skill in workmanship. New use of known materials. Use of new materials. New combinations of materials, as in metals and pottery. Beauty of design in form, or colour, or both, with reference to utility. Cheapness, relatively to excellence of production.
In the department of Sculpture, Models, and the Plastic Art, the rewards will have reference to the beauty and originality of the specimens exhibited, to improvements in the processes of production, to the application of art to manufactures, and, in the case of models, to the interest attaching to the subject they represent.
These general indications are sufficient to show that it is the wish of the Commissioners, as far as possible, to reward all articles in any department of the Exhibition, which may appear to competent judges to possess any decided superiority, of whatever nature that superiority may be. It is the intention of the Commissioners to reward excellence in whatever form it is presented, and not to give inducements to the distinctions of a merely individual competition. Although the Commissioners have determined on having three medals of different sizes and designs, they do not propose to instruct the Juries to award them as first, second, and third in degree for the same class of subjects. They do not wish to trammel the Juries by any precise limitation; but they consider that the Juries will rather view the three kinds of medals as a means of appreciating and distinguishing the respective characters of the subjects to be rewarded, and not of making distinctive marks in the same class of articles exhibited. They fully recognise that excellence in production is not only to be looked for in high-priced goods, in which much cost of labour and skill has been employed, but they encourage the exhibition of low-priced fabrics, when combining quality with lowness of price, or with novelty of production. They can readily conceive that Juries will be justified in giving the same class medal to the cheapest calico prints made for the Brazilian or South American market, as they would to the finest piece of Mousseline de Soie or Mousseline de Laine, if each possessed excellence of its own kind.
All persons, whether being designers or inventors, the manufacturers or the proprietors of articles, will be allowed to exhibit; but they must state the character in which they do so. They may also state the names of all or any of the parties who have aided in the production. In awarding the prizes, however, it will be for the Juries to consider, in each individual case, how far the various elements of merit should be recognised, and to decide whether the prize should be handed to the exhibitor, or to one or more of those who have aided in the production.
Lastly, the Commissioners, in announcing their intention of giving medal prizes, do no propose altogether to exclude pecuniary grants, either as prizes for successful competition, or as awards under special circumstances, accompanying, and in addition to the honorary distinction of the medal. There may be cases in which, on account of the condition of life of the successful competitor (as for instance, in the case of workmen) the grant of a sum of money may be the most appropriate reward of superior excellence; and there may be other cases of a special and exceptional nature, in which, from a consideration of the expense incurred in the preparation or transmission of a particular article entitled to a prize, combined with a due regard to the condition and pecuniary circumstances of the party exhibiting, a special grant may with propriety be added to the honorary distinction. The Commissioners are not prepared, for the present, at least, to establish any regulations on these heads. They consider it probable that a wide discretion must be left to the Juries, to be hereafter appointed, in respect to the award of money prizes, or the grant of money in aid of honorary distinctions; it being understood that such discretion is to be exercised under the superintendence and control of the Commission.
Articles marked " Not for Competition " cannot be admitted.
bl'MmMtmcm1 The Commissioners decided to select bronze for the material in which the medals should be executed, considering that metal to be the better calculated than any other, for the development of superior skill and ingenuity in the medallic art, and at the same time the most likely to constitute a lasting memorial of the Exhibition. There are three bronze medals, of different sizes and designs, which were obtained by public competition. Three prizes of 100/. each, were awarded for the three designs of the reverses, which appeared the most meritorious, to the following artists :
M. Hippolyte Bonnardel, Paris.
Three prizes of 50/. each were also given for the three best designs not accepted, as follows:
Mr. John Hancock, London.
Mons. L. Wiener, Brussels.
Mr. Gayrard, Paris. (Min. xxii, p. 2).
One hundred and twenty-nine models were received, and were exhibited in the rooms of the Society of Arts. The obverses of the medals are heads of Her Majesty the Queen, and His Royal Highness The Prince Albert, executed by W. Wyon, R. A., the medallist of the Mint, after the type of the Syracusan medals.
The Committee appointed (consisting of the Hon. W. E. Gladstone, the Lord
Lyttelton, the Hon. T. B. Macaulay, and the Rev. H. G. Liddell, Head
The in.cription». Master of Westminster School) to suggest inscriptions for the Prize Medals,
recommended, for the medal to be executed after design No. 1, the following
line, very slightly altered, from Manilius (Astronomicon, v. 737) :—
"Est etiam in magno quredam respublica mundo."
For the medal from design No. 2, the following line from the first book of the Metamorphoses of Ovid (v. 25):—
"Dissociata locis concordi pace ligavit."
For the medal from design No. 3, the following line from CLAUDIAN (Eidyll, vii. 20):—
"Artificis tacita; quod meruerc manus."
cogitation of Under the general conditions by which the juries were constituted it was ti„.-j.,r.,*. p^aed that there should be one jury to each of the 30 classes into which the
Exhibition had been divided. The number of jurors in each jury was determined by the amount of articles exhibited in each class, and the greater or less diversity of the subjects included in it, but no abstract idea of the relative importance of the classes was involved in the numbers attached to them. The list of the 30 classes has already been given (see p. 23), with the number of jurors appointed to each class. In addition to the juries there described, it was found necessary to appoint three sub-juries; one subordinate to Class V., for carriages and two subordinate to Class X., viz., for musical and for surgical instruments The increased number of jurors for these three sub-juries was 22, of whom half were foreigners
To facilitate the working, especially with reference to the foreign jurors, the 30 classes were collected into six groups :—
Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, forming the group of Raw Materials.
Classes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, forming the group of Machinery.
Classes 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, forming the group of Textile Fabrics.
Classes 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, forming the group of Metallic, Vitreous, and Ceramic Manufactures.
Classes 26, 27, 28, 29, forming the group of Miscellaneous Manufactures.
The thirtieth class forming the group of Fine Arts.
A classified list of subjects under the province of each jury was prepared, and formed the limitation to each class, being the same as that upon which the arrangement of articles in the building had been made.
The constitution of juries was determined to be as follows:—The jury in general consisted of an equal number of British subjects and of Foreigners. If Foreign Commissions did not send a sufficient number of Foreigners to represent one-half of the jurors in each class, the deficient numbers might be completed by the appointment of British subjects, or be made up by the persons named by the Foreign Commissioners in London. Country as well as metropolitan districts were represented on the jury. Each jury was presided over by a chairman nominated by the Commissioners, and he was aided by a deputy chairman elected by the jury. Juries were able to appoint one of their own body as a reporter. The chairmen of the thirty juries were associated as a body, and called the " Council of Chairmen." In the absence of a chairman, the deputy-chairman took his seat at the Council. The Council of Chairmen was constituted, as far as practicable, of British subjects and Foreigners in equal numbers. The first and chief duties of the Council of Chairmen were to frame the rules for the guidance of the juries. The Council had to determine the conditions under which the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class medals respectively were to be awarded, and to define the general principles to which it would be advisable to conform in the awards in the several departments of the Exhibition. It was the wish of the Commission that medals should be awarded to articles possessing decided superiority of whatever nature that superiority might be, and not with reference to a merely individual competition. The Juries were reminded that "the three classes of medals are intended to distinguish the respective characters of subjects, and not as first, second, and third in degree for the same class of subjects." It was the function of the Council of Chairmen to see that the awards of the individual juries were in accordance with the rules before they were considered final. The propriety of pecuniary grants to individual exhibitors were considered by the Commissioners only on the recommendation of the several juries, sanctioned by the Council of Chairmen.
The mode of appointing the English jurors wasas follows :—Those towns which Appointment or exhibited to a considerable extent in any of the classes were invited to send a °g """*' list of names of persons who would efficiently represent the knowledge of those classes as jurors. It was necessary to state according to the classified jury list, the subdivisions of the class with which the person recommended was specially acquainted; and all nominations were made in classes, and not in the aggregate.