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sioners, on or before the 1st of September, what space would be likely to be occupied respectively by its raw materials, its machinery, its manufactures, and fine arts; but only Austria, Belgium, Zollverein, and North Germany complied with this request, and furnished the information in sufficient detail. The great distance of other countries rendered the transmission of the information impossible, and practically it was not known what articles many very important countries iraJSSrtfbr"** would send, until they actually arrived. No choice remained but to adopt a SiZd.M>geographical arrangement; and it was not until so late a period as the month of December that the Commissioners were enabled to decide the principles upon which the articles should be arranged in the Building. Circumstances connected with the form of the Building itself, the absence of the necessary information from Foreign countries, the great pressure for time, and above all the vital importance of punctually opening the Exhibition on the first of May, induced the division of the ground floor of the Building into two parts—the one being awarded to Foreign countries, and the other to the British colonies and the United Kingdom.
The productions of the United Kingdom and tho British colonies, are generally grouped icestivard of the central transept. The productions of each foreign country are placed together eastward of the transept—except machinery in motion, which, on account of the motive power being at the north-west end of the building, is placed in that part of the building. The productions of each country are classified nation by nation, and as far as practicable into the thirty classes already mentioned. The position of each country is determined in the building by its own latitude. As a general rule, machinery is placed at the north side, and raw materials and produce brought to the south side of the building. The intermediate parts are occupied by manufactures and fine arts. There is hardly any choice in respect of light, which is nearly the same in all parts of the building. The south side, as well as the roof of the building both in the north and south sides, is covered with canvas. The sides of the upper and the gallery tier on the north are not so Allotment of covered. As a general rule applicable both to foreign countries and the United iS*theabuiKng. Kingdom, space was allotted on the following data:—on the ground floor, each area of 24 feet by 24 feet containing 576 feet superficial, was accounted as yielding exhibiting area of 384 feet, it being considered that 192 feet would be a sufficient allowance for passages. The width of these was determined by experiments in the building and by experience of those in the British Museum, in the Soho Bazaar, &c. In the gallery, half of each area was deducted for passages, and the other half, or 288 feet, assigned as exhibiting space. If the exhibitor wished to have more passage-room, then he was obliged to obtain it by deducting it from his exhibiting space: and every exhibitor, desiring to attend himself, or by his representative, during the Exhibition, had to deduct the sitting or standing space for such attendant from the superficial floor or counter-space allotted to him. System of A glance at the plan shows the adoption of a simple system of main passages.
P"*"ges' There is a central avenue 72 feet wide running from east to west, which is
partially used to display both works of art and remarkable specimens of manufacture, and likewise to afford sitting room; parallel to this on each of the north and south sides are two uninterrupted passage, 8 feet wide, one extending the length of the building and the other taking the circuit of the walls on each side. Besides the transept there are six main passages 8 feet wide, running from north to south. These were established as passages which must not be infringed Upon . portions of the building being then assigned to Foreign countries and to groups of exhibitors, a considerable latitude was permitted to them in arranging the other passages; at the same time, as the erection of the second gallery brought the whole building into a system of courts, spaces in the form of courts were allotted to Foreign countries, home districts, and classes of objects, and every one was encouraged to preserve them as much as possible. Thus on the British side, at the north there are the several machinery courts—the carriage court—the mineral court—the paper court—the miscellaneous court—the East India court; whilst at the south, there are three courts respectively for printed fabrics, for flax and woollen, and mixed fabrics:—furniture has its court, so have the manufactures of Birmingham and Sheffield—agricultural implements have an extensive court, and there are courts for mediaeval furniture, for sculpture, for Canada and colonies, and the East Indies; on the east or Foreign side, almost every country has one or more courts,—France having eight, Austria six, &c.
Spaces of the requisite dimensions having been set apart to receive the productions of the Colonies and each Foreign country, the charge of these departments, as well as the arrangement of the productions, was handed over to each commissioner or agent representing such Colonies or Foreign country.
On account of the vast magnitude of the building, of the shortness of time Arrangement of available for arrangement after the completion of the building, which as the event proved was hardly a week before the opening, and of the delay in sending the goods, it was foreseen by the Executive Committee that it would be necessary to arrange the Foreign productions geographically and the whole of the British Exhibition, not by means of the articles themselves, but of descriptions of them, and to map out the whole space before the articles themselves arrived. Not a few of these descriptions were in the first instance most vague; the exhibitor desiring to reveal as little as possible of the specific character of his articles. Many exhibitors demanded space for "fabrics," without specifying whether they were even woven or plastic. Others returned "woven fabrics," leaving it doubtful whether they were made of cotton, wool, or flax; each forming a separate class. The demands for space, merely for "inventions" and "machines," were numerous. Hence, there have crept in some errors in arrangement which would have been avoided had the description been more precise. Another source of difficulty has been the miscalculations of the amount of space which exhibitors really wanted. So frequently was the meaning of the term "superficial" and "square" feet misunderstood; so often were the expressions "horizontal" and "vertical" space disregarded or confounded, that in planning the arrangement of the Exhibition the difficulties of the Executive Committee have been great, and mistakes inevitable. One instance will afford a sufficient illustration. An important manufacturing town demanded 9,000 feet of wall or vertical space for the exhibition of its shawls, but when the demand came to be investigated, it was found to mean a demand for 900 feet of frontage on the wall, 10 feet high, and 3 feet deep—practically a demand for 27,000 superficial feet—to be arranged in such a way as would occupy half the length of the whole Exhibition! This demand of 27,000, was eventually compressed within 1,800 superficial feet of horizontal space, and submitted to, it must be admitted, with good-natured forbearance. Indeed, it may be said, that whilst almost every exhibitor desired some kind of special arrangement, convenient to himself, but inconvenient to every body else, almost every one submitted to B
Insurance from lira.
curtailment of space, and a constraint on his wishes, with a patience that greatly lightened the labours of the Executive Committee. In fact, owing to these circumstances, inevitable in such a work, without precedent or experience, and to the very late period at which some demands for space were made, it was only possible to make an approximate guess at the space which each of the classes of goods of the United Kingdom would occupy, and to leave a considerable margin for adjustments.
It should be borne in mind that every Foreign country was able to regulate the character of the arrangement by the articles themselves. The whole of its articles were first collected, and then the arrangement settled. Every Foreign country, in this respect, stood in the same position as an individual British exhibitor; but on the British side, the general arrangement, and almost the position of each of the 7,000 exhibitors, were necessarily fixed before the articles were brought into the building. An elaborate classified list of subjects included in each of the 30 classes was prepared, and recommended as a basis of arrangement to exhibitors, though, from the causes already stated, the systematic classification could not be carried out in so complete a manner as was desired.
At the British side, every exhibitor had entire control over his own allotment, the Commissioners, from an early period, having decided that each exhibitor was at liberty to arrange such articles in his own way, so far as was compatible with the convenience of other exhibitors and of the public. When the exhibitor's wishes involved expense, the exhibitor defrayed it himself. Glass cases, frames, and stands of peculiar construction, and similar contrivances for the display or protection of the goods exhibited, were provided by the person requiring them at his own cost. Persons who wished to exhibit machines, or trains of machinery in motion, were permitted to do so. The Commissioners found steam not exceeding 30 lbs. per inch gratuitously to the exhibitors, and conveyed it in clothed pipes to such parts of the building as required steam power. Arrangements were made to supply water at a high pressure gratuitously to exhibitors, who had the privilege of adapting it to the working of their machinery, &c. And the Chelsea Water-works contracted to supply 300,000 gallons of water per day, at the rate of £50 per month.
It was decided that two Official Catalogues should be prepared and published by the authority of the Commission; the one of a large size, containing full notices of everything that the exhibitor desired to state, and the other an abridgment containing the names of the exhibitors only, with a very general summary of the articles they exhibited. The right of printing and publishing these was offered for competition. The contractors were at liberty to fix the price of the large Catalogue. The smaller Catalogue was to be sold at 1*., and the contractors were bound to pay 2d. for every copy sold to the funds. Several parties tendered. The offer of Messrs. Spickk Brothers, and Messrs. Clowes and Sons, as the highest, was accepted; the amount of-their offer being £3 200 It was also provided (Min. xxix., p. 1), that should the number sold exceed 500,000 of the small edition, and 5,000 of the large, then the contractors should give a further sum for all sold over and above those numbers. The contract was sealed 6th January, 1851.
The insurance of goods from fire, or other kinds of accidents, and the responsi bility for all losses, devolved upon the exhibitors. The Metropolitan Fire
Brigade took charge of the safety of the Building from fire. With the permission
The Commissioners considered that it would conduce to the convenience of Refrahmenu. visitors to permit light and moderate refreshments to be obtained and consumed in certain prescribed parts of the building but that it would be inconsistent with the nature of the Exhibition to allow the building to assume the character of an hotel, tavern, or dining-rooms. In the Central Area are sold ices, pastry, sandwiches, patties, fruits, tea, coffee, chocolate, cocoa, lemonade, seltzer and soda water; whilst in the Eastern and Western Areas are sold bread, butter and cheese, tea, coffee, chocolate, cocoa, ginger beer, spruce beer, and similar drinks, together with the other articles sold in the Central Area. No refreshments are to be taken out of the Areas. No wines, spirits, beer, or intoxicating drinks are permitted to be sold to the visitors. The privilege of supplying refreshments on these terms was put up to competition, and the tender of Messrs. ScHWEPPE, wherein they offered a sum of £5,500 for the privilege, was accepted. Waiting w«iung room., rooms and conveniences have likewise been provided at a moderate charge at each of the refreshment areas.
With the view of affording information in respect of lodgings for the working classes which might be required in London, a register was opened, in which the names and addresses of persons disposed to provide accommodation for artizans from the country whilst visiting the Exhibition were entered. In doing this, the Commissioners intimated that they did not propose to charge themselves in any respect with the management, but simply to afford information. It was thought most expedient that the public should be led to make its own arrangements; and the object which the Commissioners had in view was simply to call public attention to the subject. Various kinds of organizations have arisen to meet any demands which may arise. The superintendence of this subject was intrusted to Colonel Reid and Mr. Alexander Redgrave.
The principal railways agreed to afford some increased public accommodation Ruimyfaciutici. during the Exhibition. Each Railway Company, both in the carriage of goods and passengers, and in the conveyance and delivery of articles intended for the Exhibition, allowed a deduction of one-half of the railway charge to exhibitors, subject to certain conditions. In order to encourage the early formation of " Subcription Clubs" in the country, to enable the labouring classes to travel to London and back during the Exhibition, the Railway Companies undertook to convey all persons so subscribing to local clubs at a single railway fare for both
journeys, up and down, which should in no case exceed the existing fare by
That in respect of journeys to London, the first 100 miles shall always be charged as
A distance of 150 miles will be paid for as 140 miles.
300 „ „ 250 „
400 „ „ 310 „
500 „ „ 360 „
and in like proportion between the respective distances.
KqjnUHoiM The consideration of the admission of Visitors was, in the first instance, referred
•drown of to a Committee, and upon the recommendations of their Report, the Commissioners published decisions, in which they stated that their attention had been principally directed to the following points:—
1st. The necessity of making such arrangements as shall secure the convenience of the public visiting the Exhibition, whether for study and instruction, or for the more general purposes of curiosity and amusement 2nd. The due protection and security of the property deposited in the building. 3rd. The effective control over the number of visitors, while the servants and officers intrusted with the maintenance of order and regularity in the building are comparatively inexperienced in their duties. 4th. The necessity of maintaining the self-supporting character of the Exhibition, and of defraying the liabilities incurred. 5th. The desire of the Commissioners to render the Exhibition accessible to all persons at the lowest possible charge, and with the least delay which a due regard to the preceding considerations will admit.
Having these objects in view, Her Majesty's Commissioners have determined to adopt the following regulations :—
The Exhibition will be open every day (Sundays excepted).
The hours of admission and other details will be announced at a subsequent period.
The charges for admission will be as follows:—
Season tickets for a gentleman . .£330
Season tickets for a lady . . . 2 2 0
These tickets are not transferable; but they will entitle the owner to admission on all occasions on which the Exhibition is open to the public.
The Commissioners reserve to themselves the power of raising the price of the season tickets when the first issue is exhausted, should circumstances render it advisable. On the first day of exhibition season tickets only will be available; and no money will be received at the doors of entrance on that day.
On the second and third days the price of admission on
entrance will be (each day) . . . .£100
On the fourth day of exhibition . , . .050
To be reduced on the twenty-second day to . .010