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Class 4. Vegetable and Animal Substances used in Manufactures.

drop of red fluid. This is extracted from the lnc, and, when formed into small masses, becomes the lac-dye of commerce. In 1848, 1,2:21,308 lbs. were imported into the United Kingdom.—R. E.]

Smith & Son, 12 Church Street, Mile End
New 7Wn.

Lichens from which archil and cudbear can be produced by steeping them in prepared ammoniacal solutions, so that the orcine they contain may, by combination with water, ammonia, and oxygen, develop colouring matter:—

No. I. Angola Orchil la weed (Roccelln monttKjnei), from Angola, coast of Africa. 2. Thick Lima Orchilla weed (R. tinotorin), from Lima, South America. 3. Lima Orchilla weed (R. fuoiforinis) from Lima, South America. 4. Canary Orchilla weed (R. tinctoria), from the Canary Islands. 5. Canary rock moss {I'armelia pertater), from the Canary Islands. Pustulatus moss (Gyrophora pustulata), from Norway.

Eight samples of archil and two cudbear, all made from Angola lichen, and used for dyeing and printing woollen, silk, cotton, mixed fabrics, and leather, all shades of crimson, violet, blue, and chocolate; used also in making stone blue and lake pigments.

Samples Nos. 8, 9, and 10. Blue, violet, and red archil weed and liquor, as taken from steeping backs, used for dyeing leather and silk. 11 and 12. Red and purple archil liquor, for printers' use. 13. Extract of red archil, for printers' use. 14 and 15. Red and blue archil paste, for dyeing wool and silk. 16 and 17. Cudbear, of two qualities, for dyeing wool and silk.

Specimens of woollens, silks, velvets, cottons, mixed fabrics and leathers, dyed and printed with archil and cudbear, also of stone blue and lake made with archil.

[Lichens are flowerless plants of very low organization, living on air and growing usually on the ground, or on the surface of rocks and trees, in the form of crusts or branching leathery expansions. Many kinds of lichens are available for dyeing. The species of Roccella are most useful, but various kinds of Lccanora (as L. perella, which is the Perelle d'Auvergne, and L. tartarea, the cudbear), Variolaria, Urceolaria, Isidium, Lcpraria, Parmelia, Sticta, Solorina, Gyrophora, Usnea, Evcrnia, Alectoria, Ramalina, and Cenomycc, many of which are not at present used, would produce colouring matter.— E. F.]

Covet, Charles, 60 Back Lane, Dublin. Samples of Irish manufacture in March, indigo blues, vegetable gums, and blacking.

Robinson, James, & Co., Huddemfteld—Inventors and Manufacturers. Archill paste and cudbear, patent process. Liquid archill for dyeing and printing.

Samples of worsted yarn dyed in best cudbear.

Tt/bnek, T., Crewkcrne—Producer. Flax, prepared for the manufacturer, grown at Clapton, near Crewkerne. Flax seed.

Bruce, G., 52 Nelson Street, Liverpool— Inventor. Black varnish, for painting and preserving wood and iron-work, either for land or marine purposes. Bluecoloured composition for covering wood or iron, with or without a thin priming of paint. Red composition for the use of agriculturists, machinists, engineers, ship and steamboat builders. Green and stone-coloured composition, applicable to general purposes. Spirit varnish for wood-work.

Long & Reynolds, Hackney—Manufacturers. Carthamus Tinctorius (Indicia), safflower. The colouring matter shown in the liquid and dry state. Used for the purposes of dyeing silk, cotton, &c. Specimens of its effects on those materials.

[The colouring matter yielded by this plant is obtained exclusively from the flowers. It is of a beautiful pink colour, and is employed by dyers to produce the peculiar colour called ponceau. It does not, however, bear exposure to light well. Safflower is also employed in the preparation of the most costly descriptions of rouge. About 6,000 cwt. are imported annually into Britain, the greater part from the East Indies.—R. E.]

Burch, William, Sewardttone Mill, Woodford,
Essex—Manufacturer.

A series of substances and combinations used in the art of dyeing; showing, in various states, the woods, roots, flowers, metals, &c, from which dyeing colours are obtained, with aqueous decoctions and dried extracts. Various acids, and solutions of metals in acids; dyeing precipitates caused by the action of various metallic "solutions on vegetable colouring matters; and samples of the general effect of the colouring matters on cotton, silk, and wool.

Samples of London skein silk, woollen, and cotton dyeing, in colours and shades.

Samples of cotton, dressed as hard silk, and of fast cotton dyeing for Lisle thread gloves. The woollen dyes by P. J. Chabot, of Spitalfields; the silk dyes, by Reynolds & Son, Temple Street, Hackney Road (for further specimens by the above dyers, see Class 18).

Opaque or precipitant colours used in oil painting and printing, and as water-colours on paper, book muslin, &c.

An illustration of the art of block printing.

Various gums and substances used in dyeing, printing, painting, dressing, &c, and in the preparation of colouring matters.

Moore, John, Littlecott Farm, Pewsey, Wilts— Proprietor. Southdown ewe (stuffed), bred by the exhibitor, seven years old, but never shown. Length of the wool 25 inches, weight 36lbs.

Henderson, Richard, Wooler, Northumberland— Producer. Fleeces of Cheviot wool, grown at an elevation of 2,600 feet above sea level.

Rebow, J. G., Wirenhoe Park, near Colchester— Producer. South-down sheep's wool.

Miller, Robert, Dublin—Proprietor. Fleeces, long wool, wether and ewe, and male and female hoggets; grown in the counties Meath and Galway. Fleeces, long and short wool, hogget, wether and ewe, mountain grown in the county Wicklow.

MANNINGS, George, WeJhampton, near Devizes

Manufacturer. Diamond matching wool, for combing; and diamond clothing wool, from Southdown fleeces, the produce of the county of Wilts.

Sands, Wm., & Co., Mortimer Street, Leeds. Specimens of "burry" wool in the original state, with specimens of the same cleaned by machinery.

[By "burry" wool is meant, in the language of commerce, wool containing a quantity of "bum" or thorny particles derived probably from the spinous and other thorn-bearing plants of Australia. These it is necessary to remove previous to the preparation of the wool for textile purposes, and by ingenious machinery this is successfully accomplished.—G. T.]

Motley, Thomas, Leeds—Proprietor. Wool, from Sydney, New South Wales.

Class 4. Vegetable and Animal Substances used in Manufactures.

Pbelleb, C. A., 31 Abchurch Lane—Patentee
and Manufacturer.

English wether and hog wool.

Mohair and fine Australian wool, in the raw state as imported; washed; and carded and balled.

Tops, being the long fibres in slivers, to be spun into yarn for the manufacture of worsted stuffs, shawls, and hosiery.

Noils, being the shorter fibres used by blanket and cloth manufacturers.

Yarn, No. 70, spun from the Australian wool (commonly called Botany) tops. The peculiar process of combing by which the above tops have been manufactured is patented.

(By the ordinary process the combs are heated to a high temperature, and oil is applied to the wool before being drawn out in the silver. On the present plan the heat employed is not so groat, but more equable, and the use of oil can be dispensed with. The tops are thus preserved clean and white, and better suited therefore for all fine fabrics. The specimens now exhibited are produced without oil.—Q. T.]

Good, Floodman, & Co., Hull—Importers. White Iceland wool.

Lipfeht, David, 66 Albion Street, Leeds
Importer.
Fleeces of German wool.

[Wool is a kind of hair, characterised by an imbricated scaly surface, whon viewed under the microscope, on which depends its remarkable felting property and its consequent value in manufacture.

Most quadrupeds possess the woolly variety of hair as an under-clothing, but in a small proportion, and hidden by the smooth exterior coarser kind of hair. In the wild sheep (Ovis amnion and Oris mitsinum) the woolly variety is developed in excess; and in the domesticated varieties the fleece has become improved by care and breeding until its original coarse character has disappeared.—R. 0.]

Armitage Brothers, Huddersfeld—Importers
and Manufacturers.

Woaded black elephant beavers, 55 inches wide, great weight, 46 and 44 ounces to the yard, manufactured entirely from Port Phillip wool.

Albert check, requiring no lining for the coats, one side being a plain colour, the other checked.

Albert cloth, the two sides being different colours.

"Exhibition" cloths, 56 inches wide, weighing only twelve ounces to the yard.

Scoured Sydney skin wool, grown in New South Wales, and washed by J. T. Armitage and Co., of Sydney.

Horan, Henry—Manufacturer. Prepared Greenland whalebone of different colours, for covering whip handles, walking sticks, and telescopes, and various other purposes, with portions of black and white whalebone as cut from the palate.

[The whalebone or Baleen, as it has been called, consist* of numerous parallel laminae, descending perpendicularly from the palate of the llalrvna mysticetus. Its object, in the economy of the animal, is to form an efficient strainer for its food, which is taken in with the water; and the latter, when the mouth is partially closed, is expelled, leaving the small Crustacea and other animals, which constitute the nourishment of thewhales, entangled, as it were, in the lamina; of whalebone. Although all the species of Baloma possess this substance, it is furnished in the largest quantities and of the finest quality by the /Jalama mysticetus, which is the object of incessant and eager pursuit, not only for the value of this substance, but for the immense supply of oil which is obtained from

the thick layer of blubber or cutaneous fat in which the body is enveloped. The length of the largest pieces of baleen in a whale 60 feet long is frequently as much as 12 feet; and the lamina; are ranged in two series, each containing about 300 in number.—T. B.]

Pcckbidge, Frederick, 5 and 6 Kinysland Place—Manufacturer. Goldbeater's skin. The raw material, or skin of the gut of oxen. The material in its various conditions, as used for other purposes. The raw material manufactured into goldbeater's skin. Mould of skins, as used in France and Belgium.

[Goldbeater's skin is a membrane separated from animal intestine, attenuated by beating with a hammer, and subsequently prepared so as to resist putrefaction.]

Tebbitt, W., A North Crescent, Bedford Square — Manufacturer. Highly ornamented box, calculated to contain four packs of playing cards, manufactured entirely from the two shells, known in commerce as the mother-o'-pearl and the New Zealand green-ear; surrounded by an elegant specimen of pierced work, intended as a border for the cover of a drawing-room table book; the cover to be of blue velvet.

[The mother-of-pearl shell is a bivalve of the genua Aciimla. Several species are used in commerce. The "New Zealand green-ear" is a univalve of the genus Baliotis, of which a kind lives in the seas of the Channel Islands, and is used also for the purposes of inlaying.— E. F.]

Lady's visiting card-case; subject, Belisarius.

Taper candlestick; shoe-slip; door-handle; paper-knives; umbrella-hooks; and a ten-inch rule.

The whole made by hand, and wrought exclusively by English workmen.

Abbott & Wright, A'ced/.am Market, Suffolk— Manufacturers. Two cakes of crown glue, manufactured from the hides and feet of cattle.

Rea, Edward, 117 Wardijur Street— Manufacturer. Lac insects, or coccus lacca; lac stick, Siam and Bengal. Products—Seed lac, orange and ruby; shell lac, orange and ruby, lump and button. Lac lake and lac dye, shell lac, lacquers, &c. Polish, varnishes, sealing wax, &C. ; white lac, lac wax, yellow and white. Gum elemi thus, or frankincense; sandrac; mastic, and varnishes Dragon's blood, grass tree gum, gum kauri, or Austra lian copal, gum animi; copal; damur; rosin, rough tur pentine, Canada balsam, varnish resin, oil varnish, colour less paper varnish, resin varnish, &c.; purified rough turpentine, and spirits of turpentine, varnish, &c.

[Gum elemi and frankincense are furnished by plants of the order Amyridecc, a family allied to the orange tribe; they are tropical.

Gum sandrac, or sandarack, is the product of a north African tree allied to the juniper, probably the Catitris quadrivalvis.

Mastich is derived from species of pistaehia, natives of the Mediterranean region; they belong to the cashewnut tribe (Anacat di cci<r), a family furnishing many varnishes.

Dragon's blood is produced by the l)raca?na draco, a liliaceous plant; the Cullitris draco, a palm; and the Pterocarpus Draco, a sandlewood tree, of the pea tribe; from the wood of the first and last named, and from the fruit of the second; they are all tropical.

Grass tree gum is from Xanthoma, an Australian plant of the lily tribe. Gum animi is from the Jfymemca cowbaril, and copal from other tropical species of the same genus, belonging to the pea tribe.

Class 4. Vegetable and Animal Substances used in Manufactures.

The balsams and turpentines are resinous secretions from trees of the pine tribe. Canada balsam is from the Abies balsamea, or balm of Gilead fir. Damur is from Dammora, an Australian pine.—E. F.]

Simpson, Humphrey, & Vickebs, 23 Little
Britain—Importers and Manufacturers.

Various specimens of isinglass, cut and uncut.

Isinglass is the swimming bladder of sturgeons caught in the Caspian and Aral seas, and in all large rivers in Siberia; an inferior kind is also taken from fish found in the rivers of South America, in the Demerara and Berbice rivers, and in the East Indies. Formerly isinglass was torn up by hand, or cut with scissors; it is now rolled and cut by machinery.

Dawson & Morris, 96 Fenchurch Street— Importers and Manufacturers. Russian and Brazil isinglass.

Swinborne, T. C. & G., & Co., Coggeshall, and I Great Toner Street, Lond'm—Manufacturers. Refined isinglass and gelatines. Clarifying isinglass and gelatines. Glues, and manufacturer's gelatines.

Watt, W., & Son, Dumfries, Scotland-* Manufacturers. Glue made from pieces of hides and skins, principally used by cabinet-makers and joiners.

Nimmo, Thomas, & Co., Linlithgow, Scotland—• Manufacturers. Specimens of glue:—Strong, for the use of joiners, &c.; refined, for paper-makers, &c.; and extra-refined gelatine.

Neuber, William Henry, 549 New Oxford Street —Inventor. Registered placard holder. Samples of liquid glue; and water varnish. Glass and china articles mended with the liquid glue. Specimens of drawings and paper-hangings varnished with the water varnish.

Dr/FAVILLE, W., Broughton House, Islington. Culinary articles: wrapped in gelatine, to.

Curtis, Brothers & Co., 19 Coleman Street —Factors. Substances used for tanning leather: oak bark (Quercus pedunculata and scssilijhra f), English tree, in the rough, cleaned, chopped, and ground; coppice in the rough, chopped and ground; Flemish tree and coppice, cleaned and chopped; Dutch tree, cleaned and chopped. Larch bark (Larix europaa), Scotch, in the rough and ground. Mimosa bark (Acacia), New South Wales, in the rough and ground. Babool bark (Acacia arabica), Calcutta. Cork tree bark (Quercus Saber), Larache and Rabat. Hemlock spruce (Abies canadensis), United States, in the rough and ground. Sumach (Rhus coriaria), Sicily. \a,\oni& (Quercus agilops), Smyrna. Valonia (Camata), Dragomestra, Morea. Divi-divi (Ctttuilpinia coriaria), Maracaibo, Rio de la Hache, Savanilla. Myrobalans (Terminalia), Calcutta. Terra Japonica (Nauclea Gambir), Singapore, in import package, and loose. Cutch (Acacia Catechu), Pegu, in import package and loose.

[The active principle for which all these articles are valued in the process of tanning leather is tannin, or tannic acid. It exists in greater or smaller proportions in each vegetable product named, being found principally in the bark. Exctpt for the purposes of chemistry and medicine, tannin is not extracted from these substances, which are

consequently employed, in a more or less comminuted state, in the conversion of the gelatine of the hides, Sec, into tannate of gelatine, or leather.—R. E.]

French, Beal, 51 Crutched Friars—Importer and Manufacturer. Cork, raw material; cork, manufactured by hand.

[Cork is the exterior bark of Quercus suher, a species of oak native, cultivated in Spain, Portugal, and the south of France. A tree is ready for barking when it reaches 15 years in age, and between that and 30 years may be barked several times.—E. F.]

Holt, Edward, 24 White Rock Place, Hastings
Inventor and Manufacturer.

Mosses, arranged in the form of a vase, collected from various places in East Sussex, with a description of the uses of the plants.

Sea-weeds, zoophytes and corallines, found on the rocks and coast of Hastings and St. Leonards, ornamentally displayed, in a gilt frame; the various uses of the plants, for medicinal and other purposes, briefly described.

Groves, Nicholas, 58 Wailing Street, Dublin
Manufacturer.
Parchment and glue, Irish manufacture.

Beeson, G., Mile End Road—Manufacturer. Continuous tracing paper, upwards of three hundred feet in length, to enable engineers and others to trace out the entire line of railway on one sheet, up to 1,000 feet.

Murray, Sir Wm. Keith, Bart., Dunnottar, Stonehaien—Proprietor. Plank of Scotch fir (Piirns sylcestris.) Section of Scotch elm ((Ilmus montana.)

Neijs, John, Cm-igh, County Tyrone, Ireland— Proprietor. Pearls, with specimen of the shells in which they are formed; found in the deepest parts of the river Strule (fresh water), at the town of Omagh, county Tyrone.

[The shell fish from which these specimens of native pearl are derived is the Unto margaritifera, and the pearls are second only in quality to those obtained from the true pearl-oyBter, Meleagrina margaritifera. Pearl consists of concentric layers of membrane and carbonate of lime, and is partially soluble in acid.—E. F.]

Evans, William, Castle Street, Swansea— Inventor. Piece of Welsh oak, prepared by a peculiar process, S3 a substitute for fancy wood.

Chinchen, Ann, Swanage, Dorset. Fancy-work in straw plait, mauufactiired by the hand, at Swanage; and used for making hats, bonnets, and baskets.

Standish &, Noble, Bagshot—Importers and Producers. Cuprcssus funcbris, or weeping cypress, 30 feet in height, from the green-tea country, Wheychow (Hwuychow), iu the north of Cliina, where it is used for ornamental planting, and in burial grounds, whence it takes its name. Live plants were first imported into this country in the spring of 1849.

Pieces of polished wood from the same tree.

Royle, J. Forbes, M.D., F.R.S., Acton— Collector. A collection of mineral, vegetable, and animal products, useful in the arts, manufactures, and medicine, collected in the baraars of the Bengal presidency, with some additions, and a few contributions from Drs. Falconer and Stocks.

Class 4. Vegetable and Animal Substances used in Manufactures.

Booth, John, Peter, 80 Hattan Garden— Importer. Feathers from a diving bird (Aptenodytes patagonica), a native of islands in the Pacific Ocean; used for ladies' boas, muffs, kc. Georgiana boa, muff, and cuffs, made of the feathers of a diving bird (Podiceps cristatus), a native of islands in the Pacific Ocean; lighter than, and as warm as, fur.

Mason, George, 1'ately, Hartford Bridge, Hants

Producer. Flax, grown and steeped at Yately; scutched at the New County Gaol, at Winchester.

Dorset, Wm. Henry, 14 Spring Street, Sussex Gardens, Paddington—Manufacturer. Flowers used as ornaments for the dinner table, for garnishing meats, &C. ; cut out of vegetables.

Lehare, Jane Clara, 11 Coicley Terrace,

North Brixton—Manufacturer.

Sheets of wax for modelling flowers. The raw mate

rial, in three different stages. Also, a small group of

flowers, showing the application of the waxen Bheets.

Learmocth, Thomas, 40 Royal Crescent, Nottitvj Hill—Importer. Scoured skin merino wool, the growth of Port Phillip, New South Wales.

Stevens, William, 1 Rock Place, Tottenham Road, Kingsland—Inventor. Preserved flowers, retaining their natural form; intended to form cabinet illustrations of botany.

Heal & Son, Tottenham Court Road —Importers
and Dressers.

Specimens of bed feathers; Irish, English, Russian, Hudson's Bay, and Dantzic, in the raw state, and steamed and dressed.

Specimens of Russian down, in the raw state, and ■teamed and dressed.

Specimens of Greenland eider-down dressed.

An eider down quilt, composed of a fine satin centre, and surmounted by a border of white satin, richly embroidered with flowerg and ornaments. Executed by James Houldsworth and Co., of Manchester.

A quilt of fine Greenland eider down, covered with rich blue and gold brocaded silk, designed and adapted to lay across the foot of it bed.

Jennings, Henry, 8 Great Tower Street
Inventor and Producer.

1. Gum-substitute, employed instead of gum Senegal in printing niousseline-de-laine, calico, &c.

2. Oxalic acid, for dyeing and other chemical purposes.

3. Saccharine matter, or sugar, for preparing syrups used for the refining of loaf sugars, and for fermentation, to produce alcohol or vinegar.

4. Alcohol.

5. Vinegar or acetic acid is a new use of universal application.

These various substances are produced by the decomposition of potato-starch, or other amylaceous matter, by means of new and economical chemical process, and in a state of purity hitherto unattainable.

[Oxalic acid is prepared in large quantities for the purposes of commerce, by a process involving some refined chemical principles. It occurs in the juice of the woodsorrel (Oralis acetorclla). It is procured in quantity by acting upon animal and vegetable substances with nitric acid. The elements of sugar, when it is thus treated, undergo the curious metamorphosis of producing an acrid poison, from being been before combined in a wholly innocent form. In chemistry and the arts, this acid is

of value, and particularly in that of calico-printing, in the production of the well-known variety of prints called the discharge-style.—R. E.]

Cooney, Charles, 60 Back Lane, Dublin. Samples of Irish manufacture in starch, indigo blues, vegetable gums, and blacking.

Groves, Nicholas, 58 Watling Street, Dublin
Manufacturer.
Parchment and glue, of Irish manufacture.

Cheesebrough, William, Bradford, Yorkshire— Proprietor. Specimens, illustrating the average quality of combing wools from each county in England.

Samples of Irish, Scotch, and Welch long wool.

Hadwen, John, & Sons, Kilroyd Mills, near Halifax. Specimens of the process employed in the production of silk in general:—

1. Seeds of the mulberry tree.

2. Eggs of the silk-worm.

3. The cocoon in the state in which the Silkworm leaves it.

4. Cocoons in the brush, showing the kuubbs in their rough state.

5. Reeling of the cocoon into the bank.

6. Refuse cocoon made in the reeling.

7. The same in a damp state, and a sample of carded silk.

Dorant, Richard, jun., 11 Copthall Court— Proprietor. Samples of raw silk, the produce of the various silkproducing countries, Italy, China, India, Turkey, &c.

Hayes, P., Widness, Warrington—Manufacturer. Rosin in the raw state.

Spirits extracted from rosin, used for making varnish. Refined rosin oil, for coarse machinery, ships' masts, &c., &c.

Common rosin oil, for tramways, &c.

Pine tallow, manufactured from rosin, for railways.

Pitch.

Rosin acid.

Pine varnish made from resin, for vessels.

Tod, W., Clinchfoot, by Langholm—Producer. Specimen of compressed peat, giving 8 per cent, more heat than the best coal of equal weight.

Vegetable Kingdom, Sectional
Committee On.

Samples of the ordinary flax and hemp of commerce.

French flax; Flemish flax; Dutch flax; Friesland flax; Archangel flax; Riga flax; English flax; Egyptian flax; New Zealand flax.

Petersburg clean hemp; Petersburg half-clean hemp; Riga Rein hemp; Riga Pass hemp; American hemp; Egyptian hemp; brown India hemp; India scum hemp; Manilla hemp; Italian homp; Jute hemp.

Claussen, Peter, M Gresham Street, London
Inventor and Patentee.

Samples of flax prepared by the exhibitor's process, intended to show the universal applicability of flax fibre to the purposes of textile manufactures.

The first set of samples are intended to show the various processes resorted to in the preparation of flax into a material capable of being spun alone, or mixed with various proportions of cotton upon any of the ordinary cotton-spinning machines. The samples show, 1st, the flax in the Btraw as pulled from the ground, cut into appropriate lengths by suitable machinery. 2nd. As it appears after having undergone the first process of satu

Class 4. Vegetable and Animal Substances used in Manufactures.

ration in a Holution of soda required to remove the glutinous substance adhering to the fibres. 3rd. The fibres as seen after the removal of the "shove," or woody part of the plant. 4th. The flax transformed into a cottonlike substance by the expansive force of carbonic acid gas produced by the action of an acid upon the soda, taken up by the fibres in the previous stage. The ,1th, (ith. and 7th shows the same bleached, dried, carded, and ready for spinning. The remaining articles in this series are samples of mule and throstle yarn of various numbers, gome of which are composed entirely of flax, and others of various properties of flax and cotton. Both these descriptions of yarns are exhibited, bleached and dyed in various colours for the purpose of showing that flax, prepared upon this process, is capable of receiving the same opaque dye as cotton, and, in the mixed yarns, no difference can be distinguished in point of colour or of shade between the two materials. Samples of grey and bleached, dyed and printed cloth woven from the yarns, prepared as above, are also exhibited. The yarns formed of a mixture of flax and cotton are termed " flax-cotton" yarns.

The second series of samples consists of yarns formed of various proportions of flax and wool called " flax-wool yarns," the flax being prepared, in many respects, in the same manner as when required for spinning on cotton machinery. The mixed woollen and flax yarns were spun on the ordinary woollen machinery. Samples of flannel and of woollen cloths, milled and dyed, woven from these mixed yarns, of various colours.

The third series contains samples of flnx prepared for spinning alone or combined with short silk upon the ordinary silk machinery. The flax so prepared is shown, dyed various colours, and possessing, unlike the samples prepared for the cotton machinery, the brilliancy of colour which is peculiar to silk. The yarns formed of equal or other proportions of flax and silk, which are termed "flax-silk yarns," are shown dyed ; and, as in the case of the "flax-cotton," no difference of shade or colour is perceptible in the two materials. A quantity of silk, woven from "flax-silk" yarns, is also shown in this series.

In the fourth series, samples illustrative of the exhibitor's mode of preparing flax for spinning upon the ordinary flax machinery, and for its manufacture iuto linen fabrics.

A fifth series consists of various samples of hemp, juto, and the fibrous substances prepared, either in whole or in part, as above; and samples of cloth woven upon the Chevalier Claussen's circular loom for the purpose of showing the applicability of the invention to articles of hosiery.

The advantages claimed as arising from the process, illustrated in the fourth series for preparing flax for the linen manufactures, are its simplicity, rapidity, certainty, and cheapness. By this process a fibre nearly free from colour is procured, so that the after process of bleaching is greatly facilitated: the fibre is also pure when produced, so that the same weight, or nearly so, of yarn, can be spun from a given weight of fibre; and the loss in bleaching is very small, as it consists only of the removal of accidental impurities received in the process of manufacture.

The three first series of samples are intended to show the applicability of the flax fibre for textile manufactures, other than linen or cambrics. It can also be spun alone, on cotton machinery, by the ordinary cotton process.

It has long been a desideratum with woollen manufacturers of all classes to obtain a material cheaper than wool, possessing the same felting or "milling" properties. Cotton and China grass have not this propety. The flax fibre is said to be stronger than the wool, and to mill equally with it. The sample shown was milled from 54 inches wide (as it fell from the loom) to 28, its present width. To prove its felting properties fully, hats have been made from the fibre mixed with an insignificant portion of rabbits' hair.

1. Flax-seed aud flowers (in wax).

2. Flax-straw with the seed-bolls on.

3. Flax-straw rippled or deprived of the seed-bolls.

4. Flax -straw as prepared by the farmer (by the exhibitor's machine). By this operation the straw is freed from the greater portion of the wood, and is reduced to one-third of its original bulk and weight, and the fibre is left uninjured, and in a fitter state for the next process.

5, Flax straw, as above, after having undergone the alkaline part of the process.

U. Flax-straw, as above, after having undergone the acid part of the process.

7. The fibre, as above, unbleached, scutched.

8. Flax-straw prepared, unbleached, and scutched.

9. Flax-straw prepared whole by processes 5 and 6, or not having undergone the breaking process described in No. 4.

10. Flax-straw, prepared and bleached as above, in the straw.

11. Flax, prepared, bleached, and scutched in the straw whole.

12. Flax-straw, prepared, broken by the exhibitor's machine (No. 4) and bleachod in the bulk.

13. The same scutched.

14. Flax split according to the exhibitor's natural colour.

15. The same, bleached.

16. Linen yarns spun from fibre prepared by the above processes, i. e., from fibre, natural colour, whole; from the same, split; from fibre, bleached in the straw, whole; from the same split.

17. Linen cloths woven from each of the abovedescribed yarns.

Short Fibre.

18. Flax-straw cut into lengths for producing fibre to spin on cotton machinery, wool or silk, whole.

19. The same, having been partially deprived of its refuse (process No. 4), cut into short lengths.

20. The same, after the alkaline process.

21. The same, after the acid process.

22. The same, fibre split.

23. Flax-fibre, soparatcd from the refuse, unbleached.

24. The same, separated from the refuse, bleached in the straw,

25. The same, unbleached and carded, fit for spinning on cotton machinery.

26. The same, bleached and carded for cotton machinery.

27. The same, iu slivers.

28. Tho same, in rovings.

29. The same, in yarn.

Flax Cotton.

30. Flax-cotton—half cotton and half flax in wool,— as above.

31. The same, slivers.

32. The same, rovings.

33. The same, yarns, mule, and throstle.

34. Cloths, all flax, spun and woven on cotton machinery.

35. The same, flax and ootton, spun and woven on cotton machinery.

36. Flax-cotton yarns, dyed by the ordinary cotton processes, showing that flax fibre takes colour exactly in the same manner as cotton,

37. Flax cloths, dyed and printed.

38. Flax-cotton cloths, dyed and printed.

Flax Silk.

39. Fibre prepared for spinning on silk machinery.

40. Slivers of flax and short silk, mixed in various proportions.

41. Rovings made from such slivers.

42. Yarns made from such rovings.

43. Cloths made from such yarns.

44. Flax fibre (pure) dyed by tho ordinary process for dyeing silk, showing the greater brilliancy of the flax when prepared by the patent process.

45. Flax-silk cloths dyed and printed.

Flax RW.
"Flax fibre for mixing with wool (carded).

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