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Class 1. Mining and Mineral Products.
Driver, William, 4 Lyon's Inn., Strand, MMlesex—Producer. Specimens from the Chevin stone quarry, Otley, Yorkshire.
Stocks, Michael, Shehden Hull, near Halifax— Proprietor. Specimens of ashlar building -stone, from the Shebdenhead quarries, near Halifax. The seam from which the specimens are obtained is between the lowest, or "Halifax beds," and the " Lowmoor beds" of coal; and botwcon the lowest of the latter, or "better bed" coal, and the Northowram Hag-stone. The Halifax beds of coal immediately overly the millstone grit.
[The coal grits of Yorkshire supply a very good building material, well adapted for local purposes. Where there is not too large a proportion of organic impurities, the sandstones of the coal measures may often be depended on, but there is apt to be a want of cementing ingredients binding the sand and gritty particles together.— D. T. A.]
Smith, Tilden, Vine Hall, Hurst Green—Pro-
Limestone, raised from a quarry on the property of Samuel John Nicoll, Esq., in the parish of Mountfield, Sussex.
Two blocks of concrete, formed with the Mountfield stone lime. One block has been kept in a damp place since 1850; the other has been kept dry. The Mountfield lime is especially adapted for submarine works, as it possesses the valuablo property of hardening under water.
[The limestones of the middle part of the Wealden formation occur in the lower or Ashburnham group, and include a series of shelly limestones and shale resembling the Sussex marble. Extensive lime-works have been long carried on near Battle, and the rocks are found to be much disturbed with faults.—D. T. A.]
Sowden, Matthew, Burley, near Leeds— Producer. Hard delf-stone grit, from a quarry at Burley, near Leeds, close-grained, strong, and durable; suitable for headstones, steps, &c, and generally for erections exposed to the weather.
Taylor, John, Stamford. Marble, sandstones, slate, limestone, &c, all obtained within six or seven miles of Stamford.
Townsend, Richard, Clearwell, near Monmouth. Forest stone for steps, coping, &c. Ashlar blocks for paving, grave stones, wharf walls, and all kinds of buildings; from the Forest of Dean.
Walsh, John, Executors Of, Leeds—Proprietors. Sandstone, from the millstone grit Berios, used for docks, bridges, locks, engine beds, &c.
Potternewton stone, used for landings, Bills, &c.
Williams, William, 1 Wellington Street, Cardiff, Wales—Proprietor. Freestone from the Quarrella quarry, near Bridgend, Glamorganshire. It contains 99 per cent, of silica. Specific gravity, 2"288.
Local Committee, Falmouth and Penrtn.
Stone, from Porkellis, Wendron, suitable for building, roads, chimney-pieces, or tables. Stone from Forest-gate, Stithians; and from Church Town, about two miles distant; from Mylor, near Penryn; and from Wendron.
Granite, from Wendron.
Stone, for road-making, extensively used on the Truro, Penryn, and Redruth trusts, from Pasko and Treluswcll
quarries, Gluvias. Stone, from Steven's quarry, Higher Treluswell, Gluvias; and from Newhani, Kea.
Specimen of porphyry, found near Swan Pool, Falmouth, containing crystals of rhomboidal quartz.
Quartz pebbles and sand, from Swan Pool beach.
Magnetic iron ore, from Treluswell, near Peniyn.
[A large quantity of excellent road stuff is obtained in Cornwall from the "ehans," or porphyritic dykes, which traverse many parts of the county; these el vans also supply the chief building stones of the district. They are, however, not unfrequently met with in a decomposing state, and are then quite unfit for use. The stones obtained from Porkellis, near Wendron, sometimes nearly resemble sandstones. Many excellent stones, both granite and elvan, are obtained near Penryn. The decomposing porphyries and elvans yield occasionally a valuable fire-clay.—D. T. A.]
Stirling, Thomas, jun., Llelvedere Hood, Lambeth
Slate cabinet, illustrating the applicability of slate to the formation of strong-rooms, powder-magazines, larders, venison - houses, partitions to rooms, waterclosets, &c. The covering of the cabinet is formed by the bottom of a slate cistern, consisting of slabs of slate secured together in panels by a method invented by the exhibitor. The same method is also applicable to the covering of the roofs of mansions with slate.
Slate is adapted for vise in fitting up the floors and compartments of public baths and wash-houses: and for stables, being applicable to mangers, stall divisions, linings, floors, and drains. It is also adapted for balconies, larders, wine-cellars, dairies, and various other purposes.
Articles exhibited in the cabinet, he, and in general use:—
Patent self-acting filter on stand. Filter, which can be supplied by hand or made self-acting. Small slate cistern. Pickling trough. Samples of slate roll ridge; common saddle-back slate ridge. Sunk channel in slate. Solid slate sink. Slate sink constructed of five pieces. Washiug-biisiu for water-closet, &c. Ornamental lootable top. Sofa and side-table ornamental tops. Chess, or ladies' work-table tops. Ink-stand. Water-closet supply box for slate cistern. Waste, union screw, and drawing-off tap for slate cistern. Samples of various nails and screws used in slate work. Half of roof covered with Delabole slab slates. Specimen of Bangor slab slating.
Specimens of roofs covered with imperial slates from the Bangor quarries; rag slates from the old Delabole quarry ; rag slates and green rag slates from Llanberis quarry; red duchess slates with three green slate diamonds ; slates from Festiniog quarries, as cut by Mathews' patent cutting machine; open space new quarry duchess slates from Llanberis quarry; imperial slates from Aberdovey quarries, near Machynlleth.
Slate bed-room and dining-room chimney-pieces, from old Delabole quarries—in imitation of marble.
Carved head-stone; cut clock face.
[The collection of slates referred to in the above description is calculated to give an idea of the beat qualities introduced into the London market, with the kind of use to which most of them are applied. The chief localities are Cornwall (Delabole), Wales (Festiniog, Penrhyn, Llanberis, &c.), Lancashire, and Westmoreland. The Delabole is especially adapted for church and other roofs, and has been much used for this purpose.
The slates, lettered A, are from the great quarries at Penrhyn, and shipped at Bangor. These quarries have as many as 10 levels, and employ upwards of 2,000 persons. Those marked B, are from Llanberis; C, from the Dorothea Slate Company's quarri near Carnarvon; D, E, from quarries at Festiniog, shipped at Port Madoc; F, Q, from near Machynlleth, North Wales, shipped at Aberdovey; H, from Delabole, Cornwall, shipped at Padstow; I, K, L, M, from near Ulverstone, in Lancashire, including some of the Westmoreland quarries, and shipped at Ulverstone.
Class 1. Mining and Mineral Products.
The present consumption of Blate in London is to the extent of from 30,000 to 40,000 tons per annum. One third of this quantity is in slabs, and the rest in roofingslates, which are in nine sizes, called respectively "ladies," "countesses" (3sizes), "duchesses" (2sizes), "queens," "rags," and "imperials." From "ladies" (16 inches by 8) to "duchesses" (24 by 12), the slates are sold per thousand (of 1,200 slates), but above that size by the ton. The "ladies " weigh 25 cwts. the 1,200 slates, and the "duchesses" 3 tons. The regular-sized slabs vary from 1 to 6 feet in length, and 1 to 3 feet in breadth. A large quantity of slate slabs is now used for ornamental purposes.—D. T. A.]
Ashdown, William, 28 Queen Street, Dublin— Producer. Roofing and writing slates, slate pencils, and hones. Roman cement.
Dutton & Co., Runcorn, Cheshire—Manufacturers. School slates, manufactured by machinery, framed in mahogany and bird's-eye maple. Book slates. Single slate.
Azulay, Bokdy, Rotherhithe—Producer.
Patent artificial fuel, made of coal dust by pressure, without the admixture of any other substance.
Coal-dust prepared for pressing.
Charcoal made of refuse tan, by extracting pyroligneous acid, tar, 4c., from refuse matters.
[The immense compression obtained by the hydraulic press, has been employed in the arts for producing cohesion between loose particles of various substances. In the present instance, the same force is used to unite the separate particles of coal dust into a solid mass. A hard shining block of great density is the result of the pressure.—R. E.]
Turner, Samuel, Orchard Place, East Imli t
[A number of highly remarkable and peculiar substances arise from the distillation of coal, caoutchouc, and wood. Coal yields, in addition to illuminative gaseous products, various volatile oils, tar, ammonia in several forms, and a complex number of singular chemical substances in a state of vapour, or fluid. Caoutchouc yields a volatile oil in which it is itself soluble, and is largely distilled for the sake of this product, which is used in caoutchouc solutions and varnishes. Wood yields an inflammable fluid called wood spirit, and an impure acetic acid, and tar.—R. E.]
Codbold, Edward, 1 High Street, Kensington —Inventor and Producer. Peat, condensed without pressure.
[The method adopted by the present exhibitor to prepare peat for economic use as fuel is altogether different from that adopted generally. He mixes the peat with a large quantity of water, reducing it to an impalpable mud, and then, by getting rid of the water, obtains a compact mass of considerable density. The mechanical means adopted are simple, and take advantage of centri
fugal force—the water being thrown off during rapid revolution.—D. T. A.]
Coates, George Peter & Thomas, Nitshiti, near
Block of coal, raised from the lowest stratum of the Victoria coal-pit, Renfrewshire; the seam six feet thick.
Alum ore, or schist which lies immediately above the coal, about two feet nine inches in thickness.
Limestone which lies immediately above the alum ore from the same coal-pit.
Alum ore in process of decomposition. Alum made from the ore.
Specimens of the principal iron-stone beds, fossils, and crystals found in this extensive mineral field. Diagram of the different metals and minerals found in sinking the Victoria coal-pit. Model of the underground workings, and representation of the shaft of the engine, and winding apparatus of the same coal-pit.
[The Victoria colliery is, probably, the deepest in Scotland, being 173 fathoms. It is sunk in the great coal region of South Scotland; a very irregular area, intersected in many places by rocks older than the carboniferous, but probably including in all more than a million of acres of productive coal. In the part known as the Renfrewshire coal field, there are ten seams of coal separated by thin bands of clay, the coal being covered by a thin bed of alum slate, and mixed with iron pyrites. A large quantity of alum is manufactured from this material, but the process requires from twelve to twenty years for its completion. Many ironstone bands, and some limestones occur near the coal, as many as sixtysix being known at Nitshill, the workable thickness reaching twenty feet of ore.—D. T. A.]
The Bideford Anthracite Mining Company. MaxWell, John Goodman, Chairman, Bideford, Devon. Anthracite coal, used for drying malt, lime-burning, &c. Compressed fuel, moulded in blocks. Mineral black paint, in powder, and mixed with oil or coal tar: mixed with the latter article, it is said to form a cheap, durable, and preservative varnish; applicable to shipping, out-buildings, &c.
[The Bideford anthracite occurs in certain rocks of the carboniferous system, oecupying a considerable portion of the county of Devon, and generally called the culmiferous series. The beds hava been worked for upwards of a century, producing a !uoderate quantity of coal, but the workings are not likely to be greatly extended. The thickness is very variable, averaging as much as seven feet, but sometimes diminishing to a few inches, and sometimes being 12 or 14 feet. To the depth of 8 or 10 fathoms it has been generally removed by old miners by means of adit levels, but shafts have been sunk more recently.
The pigment referred to is a variety of the anthracite, probably formed by decomposed parts of it, and has been much used.—D. T. A.]
Cory, William, & William, jun., Commercial Road—Manufacturers. London-burnt coke, for locomotive and foundry pur
[Coke is the fixed residium obtained by burning coal in enclosed furnaces, and is generally obtained by the complete combustion of the volatile part of the coal, though large quantities are also produced by the economical distillation of coal in the manufacture of common gas. Coking on a large scale is performed in sets of ovens or furnaces of peculiar form, each charged every 48 hours with from 2 to 4 tons of fresh coal. The dome of the furnaces being heated (generally by the heat left since the
[official Illustrated Catai.ocuf..]
Class 1. Mining and Mineral Products.
previous coking), the coal is lighted from the top by a wisp of straw, all the doors and vents being open, and when in a state of combustion, the draught is so continued as to produce a gradual and slow combustion of the whole mass from above downwards, the gases being consumed. The calcination lasts about 40 hours, and the coal loses 20 to 25 per cent, of weight, but gains in about the same proportion in bulk. The texture of coke is peculiar, and determines its value.]
Dickinson, J., F.G.S., Inspector of Coal Mines, Birmingham—Producer. Section of the strata in the coal and ironstone mines at Dowlais and Merthyr Tidvil, South Wales.
Shield, Joseph, Netrcastlcupon-Tync—
Model, showing the process of manufacturing shot from lead.
[Shot are made by melting lead, with which, usually, some arsenic is combined, at the top of a high tower. The melted metal passes through a cullender, and falling through a large column of air, at length falls into a water butt on the ground. The heights of these towers vary from 200 to 300 feet. In the progress through the air, the sphericity of the shot is obtained, and after being cooled in the water, they are selected, mixed with the little plumbago, and put into a small octagonal cask, which is made to revolve by mechanical power—in this way all roughness is removed, and the shot are polished.—R. H.]
Longmaid, William, London—Manufacturer. Rock salt, chloride of sodium, from Cheshire. Ore, cupreous pyrites, containing Bulphur, copper, silver, oxide of tin, iron, silica, &c, from Cornwall. Salt and ore, mixed and ground. Sulphate ash, the calcined product of the former, containing sulphate of soda, chloride of silver and copper in a soluble state, and oxides of tin and iron, silica, and other insoluble matters. Bleaching powder, hypo-chlorite of lime, the chlorine of which is obtained by passing a current of dried air through a close furnace (heated externally) in which the ore and salt are in process of calcination. Silver and copper precipitate, and their produce. Glauber's salts, crystallized sulphate of soda. Salt cake, anhydrous sulphate of soda. Black ash, containing caustic and carbonated soda, sulphide of calcium, and coal. Crude alkali, the lixiviated product of crocus. Purified alkali, or carbonate of soda, obtained from the former. Crystallized carbonate of soda. Bi-carbonate of soda. Insoluble portion of sulphate ash. Crocus, oxide of iron, separated from the former by elutriation, iron the produce. Tin ore, bin-oxide of tin, obtained from the residual matters of the insoluble portion of sulphate ash, by further elutriation, as practised at the mines of Cornwall and Devon, in heating tin ores, tin the produce. Roman, or blue vitrol, sulphate of copper, obtained from copper precipitate, by oxidising the precipitate and treating it with sulphuric acid. Carburetted oxide of iron. Black ash waste. Black and brown iron paint. Limestone, carbonate of lime.
[The following is a simple explanation of the essential details of this process:—
Copper pyrites (the double sidphuret of copper and iron) is combined with salt (chloride of sodium), and roasted at a certain moderate temperature. By this, the double decomposition is effected. Sulphate of soda is produced by the combination of the sulphur of the ore with oxygen, to form, first, sulphuric acid, which then unites with the soda of the chloride of sodium. The copper is also converted into a soluble sulphate, the iron being left in a state of per-oxidation, the chlorine liberated, which is employed in the manufacture of bleaching powder.— R.H.]
Le MEStmrEB, Frederick, 34 Great Winchester Street—Part Proprietor. Copper manufactured by patent processes, at Low's Patent Copper Company's Works, Penclawdd, near Swansea, exhibiting specimens of each product, from the raw copper ore to fine copper, with the slags from each.
Livinostone, Alexander Speid, Swansea—
Baoot, Ch As., 12 Charlemont Place, Ireland.
Specimen of turf, or peat. The products of turf are tar and a watery liquor; the former divisible into paraffine, heavy oil and light oil; the latter containing ammonia, carbonic acid, acetic and pyroligneous acid, and pyroxylic. The gaseous products are, carbonic acid, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. 100 tons of peat are said to give 10,000 gallons of liquor, 1,000 gallons of tar, 6,269 feet of inflammable gas. The 1,000 gallons of liquor afford one ton of sulphate of ammonia, sufficient acetic acid to give 13 cwts. of grey acetate of lime, and 52 gallons of pyroxylic spirit. The tar yields 300 tons of paraffine, 200 gallons of light hydro-carbonaceous oil, and 100 gallons of more dense and heavy oil.
Anthracite, or stone coal, from the coal-fields of Kilkenny, county Tipperary, on the estate of Ambrose Going, Esq of Ballyphillip.
[The Kilkenny coal district includes a series of basins, or troughs, separated into three or four parts by carboniferous limestone. The strata are sandstones and shales, with fire-clay and several workable beds of anthracitic coal. The portion in the county of Tipperary extends for about 20 miles in length by 6 in breadth in the widest part. The beds are inclined at a high angle and undulate, the coal being worked by shafts to the centre or deepest part of the trough, and then upwards on both sides. There are only three beds in this district; two of them 2 feet each, and the other 9 inches. It is estimated by Sir R. Kane that 50,000 tons per annum are raised. The coal is considered to be of fair quality. It yields from 3 to 8 or 10 per cent, of red ash, and contains 9 or 10 per cent, of volatile matter.—D. T. A.]
Powell, Thomas, Cardiff, Wales—Proprietor. Duffryn steam-coal,
Monkland Iron And Steel Company (wm. Murray, 33 West George Street, Glasgow)— Producers. Specimens of the seams of coal, ironstone, limestone, freestone, fire-clay, and Roman cement, contained in the various strata of the mineral field of Lanarkshire.
Specimens showing the relative quantities of coal, raw and roasted ironstoue, pig iron, refined iron, and puddled iron, required to produce malleable iron.
Specimens of white pig iron and malleable iron, square, round, flat and half round; rails, wheel-tires, angle iron, and nail-rods.
[The coal-field of Lanarkshire comprehends about 150 square miles in that county, and contains from 20 to 30 Beams of coal, of which five or six are generally worked in one colliery, having an aggregate thickness of about 20 feet. None of the coals are caking, and one kind (the columnar glance coal) burns without flame or smoke.
About half the coal raised is used in the iron-works. The total consumption in 1845 was upwards of two millions of tons.—D. T. A.]
Powell, Thomas, Goer, near Newport, Monmouthslure— Proprietor.
Specimen of Duffryn steam coal, raised at Aberd&re in Glamorganshire, and exported at Cardiff; stated to be well adapted for steam marine purposes.
Specimen of bituminous coal from the Monythusloyn* vein, raised at Lispentwyn, Monmouthshire; adapted for household and smithy purposes.
Class 1. Mining and Mineral Products.
Model of the apparatus used for the shipment of coals from boats or waggons at Cardiff dock, worked by a highpressure steam-engine, and enabling vessels to ship 400 tons per day.
[The great coal-field of South Wales, presenting nearly 1,000 square miles of productive coal area, and divided into an anthracitic and bituminous portion, yields also, and abundantly, that intermediate semi-bituminous variety, called steam-coal, of which the above and some others are well known, and adapted for general use in the steam navy. The Duffryn steam coal is rather soft, free-burning, burns cleanly, without smoke, does not cake, and leaves a little white ash. Its specific gravity is 1 • 326. It yields 84 • 3 per cent, of coke, and contains—carbon, 88 • 26; hydrogen, 4• 66; nitrogen, 1-45; oxygen, 0'60; sulphur, 1 • 77; ash, 3 M. Its relative calorific value (carbon being unity) is 87 ■ 7.—D. T. A.]
Latch, Joseph, & Co., Ncirport, Monmouthshire— Producer. Specimen of black-band iron ore, raised from the mines at Gilvach, parish of Gellygaer, Glamorganshire. It lies in beds or bands 3 feet thick, and 25 yards above the upper vein of coal. Analysis:—Protoxide of iron, 43-09; carbonic acid, 28'01; silica, 944; carbon, 12-29; alumina, 5-J7; sulphuret of iron, 1-20; moisture, '60.
Bird, William, & Co., 5 Martin's Lane, Cannon Street, City—Proprietors. Specimens of Staffordshire bar, hoop, sash-frame, and plate iron; Welsh ordinary iron rails, and rail sections; Scotch bar-iron, spikes, and rivets; Tyre iron; patent lap-welded boiler and other tubes, plain and enamelled; patent corrugated coloured enamelled roofing plates. Specimens of cold-blast pig-iron; '' Crane's" anthracite, "Budd's" anthracite, and Scotch pig-iron; cold-blast and anthracite refined metal, tin-plate iron, and tin plates.
Morgan, Richard, & Sons, Llanelly, Wales— Producers. Stone-coal, or anthracite, from Cwm Amman, Llanelly, Gelly Ceidriin.
Elliot, Robert, Pensher Fence Houses. Iron and coal.
BoTTERLEY Compant, Alfreton—Producers.
Specimens of coal and ironstone, and of organic remains in connexion with the Derbyshire coal-field, including analyses of the different coal strata.
Iron in its different stages of manufacture, including pig-iron, refined metal, puddled, and merchant bar-iron.
Oscillating steam-engine, of 10-horse power, without a slide valve, the steam being admitted and exhausted through the trunnions by the motion of the cylinder.
[The great central coal-field of England extends into Derbyshire, and the works at Alfreton and its vicinity have been long known as exhibiting in all no less than 30 seams of coal, whose aggregate thickness is 78 feet.
The iron ore associated with the coal in this district is of excellent quality, and very abundant.—D. T. A.]
Atkinson, John, Cole/ord, Gloucester. A complete Bet of specimens of the workable seams of coal and veins of iron ore, from the Forest of Dean, placed in compartments, showing the name and thickness of each, and also the name of the works from which they are produced; with two sections of the mineral basin, illustrative of the same. The case which contains the minerals is a specimen of the oak of Dean Forest.
[Tho Forest of Dean coal-field is understood to occupy about 45 square miles; the total thickness of the deposits
being about 3,000 feet, of which there is a thickness of 52 feet of coal distributed in 28 seams. It is remarkable for the great regularity of the deposits over a large part of the area, the beds dipping steadily towards the middle of the basin, and the millstone-grit rising and surrounding it. There is, however, an extensive and remarkable fault crossing the field. The workable seams of the district are in three groups, the lowest of which have not yet been much worked, except near their outcrop, where they are reached by levels driven from the hill side. Some parts of the thicker seams measure as much as 12 feet.—D. T. A.]
Beecroft, Butler, & Co., Leeds—Manufac-
Pieces of bestdouble-fagottedrailwayaxles, in the forged state, cut to show the mode of manufacture; and broken, to show the fibre in fracture.
Pieces of best quality of railway tire-bar, in the forged state, cut to show the mode of manufacture; and broken, to show the fibre in fracture.
Railway tires, and double-fagotted railway axles, best quality, and double-fagotted cart and carriage axles, in forged state, bent cold in different forms, to exhibit the toughness, soundness, and strength of the material.
[As the speed of the locomotive steam-engine became developed, many results presented themselves which were as unlocked for by the mechanic and engineer as the speed itself had been wholly unexpected. Among these, none has been the cause of more anxiety, and none perhaps of more real danger, than the change which wrought iron in axles and in the tires of wheels is found to undergo when exposed to the severe friction induced by rapid speed under heavy loads. Metal that had been deemed tough and fibrous became brittle, and broke like cast iron.
The specimens of railway tires and axles exhibited, in various conditions, and showing the structure of the metal in fracture, illustrate this result.—W. H.]
Double-worked cable-chain iron, bent cold.
Tension bar-end, of best Kirkstall iron, torn asunder by 135 tons, by means of hydraulic pressure.
Bar of iron in the rolled state.
Walking-sticks made from the iron.
Railway-carriage wheels of different materials and various construction.
Waggon and mail axles on various principles.
Improved Collinge's India and other axles.
Registered self-acting regulating damper for high-pressure boilers.
Registered improved moveable eccentric tumbler.
Field, Coopers, & Fadlds, Worsbro' Dale, Barnsley—Proprietors. Silkstone Main house coal, from the Silkstono bed— thickness of bed 5 feet 6 inches.
Worsbro' Park hard or steam coal, and soft or house coal, from the Barnsley 10 feet bed.
[The Barnsley coal is obtained from part of the great central coal-field of South Yorkshire, Nottingham, and Derbyshire, a district extending from Leeds to Nottingham, and including as much as 650,000 acres of coal-field. The qualities of coal obtained are bituminous or household coal, steam coal, cannel, and anthracite, varying much in quality in different localities. There are about 12 workable seams, the total average thickness being upwards of 30 feet, and the thickest seam is 10 feet. The total thickness of the upper carboniferous series here is estimated at about 550 yards. Much of the coal is worked on the long-wall method, and is of good quality. —D. T. A.]
CLA88 1. Mining and Mineral Products.
Patent Fuel Company, 15 St. Mary Axe— Manufacturers. Specimens of Warlich's patent fuel, consisting of the following series:—Welsh steam fuel, manufactured at Swansea; North country fuel, manufactured at Middlesborough-on-Tees; household fuel, manufactured at Deptford, from North country coal; and locomotive coke fuel, manufactured at Swansea; with samples of the tar and coal used in the manufacture.
[Warlich's patent fuel consists of bricks measuring 9 inches by 6 J and 5, and weighing about 12 lbs. They are dense and well made, require breaking before use, and when burning, give off little smoke, but they take some time to light. They contain carbon 90'02, hydrogen 5'56, sulphur 1-G2, ash 2'91. They are made of the dust of various kinds of coal ; the above analysis having reference to those manufactured of Welsh coal.—D. T. A.]
Drew, Joseph, St. Austell. Iron ore, magnetic and oxidulated, from the Trerank mine, near St. Austell. Brown hicmatite, from the same mine. Iron ores. Red hicmatite, from Treverbyn mine.
Day & Twibell, Barnsley—Proprietors. A column of ooal, three feet square at the base, showing the entire thickness, and all the different qualities of the seams or beds which are found together, and generally known by the name of the Barnsley thick coal, from the Mount Osborne Collieries, Barnsley, Yorkshire. About two-thirds of the entire bed or stratum produces housefire coal, and one-third, coal for steaming, iron-smelting, &c.
Ulverston Mixing Company, Ulverston. Specimens of iron ore.
Firth, Barber, & Co., Oaks Colliery, Barnsley— Producers. Coal for steam ships, for converting iron into steel, and for smelting iron.
Coal for domestic fires, from the Oaks Colliery, Barnsley, Yorkshire.
Russell, John, Risca, near Newport, Mon-
Specimen of black vein coal, raised at Risen, and exported at Newport: the vein ranges from 9 to 16 feet in thickness, and is worked by pits at a depth of 144 yards.
Specimen of Risca rock vein coal: the vein ranges fron\ 4 to 5 feet in thickness, and is worked by pits at a depth of 100 yards.
Specimen of new black vein coal, raised at Cwm Tilery, and shipped at Newport; the vein is about 5 feet in thickness, and is worked by pits at a depth of 130 yards: this coal is stated to be well adapted for steam vessels.
Argillaceous iron ores from the lower coal measures of the South Welsh basin, raised at Risca.
Fire-bricks manufactured at Risca.
Harrison, Ainslie, & Co., Newland Furnace, Ukerston. Haematite iron ore, from Lindal Moor, in Furness, containing metallic iron, 66-47 percent.; oxygen, 28-50 percent.; silica, 3'43 per cent.; zinc, -71; moisture and loss, -89.
Charcoal pig-iron and furnace cinder, from Newland, Backbarrow, Duddon, and Lorn furnaces, said to be the only charcoal furnaces in Britain.
Derwent Iron Company, Shotley Bridge, Newcastle—Manufacturers. A rolled malleable iron-beam plate, used in the construction of marine engines, 17 feet 1$ inch long, 4 feet 6 inches broad, and 1J inch thick, weighing 1 ton 5 cwt. A rolled malleable iron plate, used in the building of iron ships, 20 feet long, 3 feet 6 inches broad, 5-8ths of an inch thick.
A piece of rolled keel iron, used in building iron ships. A railway bar, measuring 66 feet 9 inches in length, 88 lbs. to the yard, and weighing 17 cwt. 1 qr. 26 lbs. A railway bar, 65 feet 9 inches long, 12 lbs. per yard.
Clarke, Robert Couldwell, The executors of, . Siikstone, near Barnsley—Producer. Coal, from the old Silkatone Colliery, near Barnsley, Yorkshire.
[The column of coal here exhibited is called Peacock or iridescent coal, from the peculiar tints of colour which it shows, and which appear to be generally the result of some action of water on the surface and between the natural faces. This tarnish, rare in most collieries, appears to be particularly abundant in that from which the above specimens are taken. It is not quite clear whether it arises from a very thin film of foreign matter deposited on its surface, or whether the mechanical condition of the surface itself (as in the case of mother-of-pearl) produces the appearance of iridescence. —D. T. A.]
Models of corf, and set of tools, as used by colliers at work in the mines, and in raising coal from the pits.
Montague, Arthur, Lydney, Gloucestershire—
Specimens of the iron ore procured from the mines of the Forest of Dean Iron Company, and smelted at their iron works at Parkend, Gloucestershire, with the pigiron, refined metal, and furnace scoria produced from it, viz.:—
Argillaceous, calcareous, and silicious hematite ironore.
Best forge pig-iron.
Blast furnace scoria.
Phillips, Smith, & Co., Llanelly, Wales—
Series of specimens illustrative of the manufacture of tin plates.
[To prepare tin plates, sheets of iron are carefully cleaned from all oxidation and from every trace of organic matter: then being dipped into a saline solution, which serves as a flux, they are dipped into melted tin, which is diffused by heat over the surface, and the tin plate is completed. ]
Pig-iron, as received from the blast furnace.
Rough bar made from pig-iron, first melted and refined by blast and coke fuel, and converted into malleable iron in a charcoal fire, stamped and rolled into a rough bar.
Bar-iron made from the rough bar heated with blast and coke in a hollow fire, hammered and rolled into a finished bar.
Sheet-iron, known as black plate, rolled in casehardened rolls from the bar-iron.
Black plate cleaned in a preparation of sulphuric acid passed through planished rolls, and softened by heating in pots previous to being coated with tin.
Sheet of black plate, partly tinned.
Wooden boxes, each containing a specimen of finished sheets of different sizes and thickness.
Stainton Mining Company, Ulverston. Furness iron ore (hematite) produced from mines belonging to the Earl of Burlington, and used in Staffordshire, Yorkshire, and South Wales, for mixing with inferior iron ores. ^
Mitchell, William, Wellington Street, Portobello, near Edinburgh—Inventor. Specimen of coal, and snuff-box made from it. Hone made from coal.
Horn of a bull, with iron frame and stuffed buffer attached. Somniferous electric brush.