ing choice would be the transformation It occurred to me to make use of his of the Living Age into an annual.

Wine and the Chicken Coop M. JOUBERT is the professor of agriculture at Fontainebleau, and an enterprising gentleman to boot. It is his duty and his pleasure to discover more productive methods of farming, and he leaves no stone unturned in his eager search for improvements. Let American barnyard savants concoct new formulas of 'Lay-or-Bust' bran on a basis of dynamite and excelsior; France is heir to a nobler tradition. M. Joubert is also a humane man. He believes that what he enjoys his hens should be allowed to enjoy too - if it is good for them. He therefore decided to initiate these useful birds to the ecstasies of the grape. Selecting a particularly fine dozen of eighteen-monthold hens, he divided them into two groups of six. The unlucky ones were put on a Wayne B. Wheeler diet; the others were given each day one tenth of a litre of wine apiece. The teetotalers laid three eggs in the month of October, one in November, none at all in December, and in January twentythree. The scofflaws, on the other hand, produced twenty-eight eggs in October, fifty-seven in November, fifty-four in December and fifty-seven in January. We refrain from pointing the moral.

Limericks and Religion

BOTH the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England have enlisted the limerick as a means of propagating the faith among the young. The Catholic priest who signs himself 'G. R. P.' says in the introduction to his limerick prayer-book: "The heresiarch Arius, in order to spread his false teaching, composed ballads of heretical doctrine in the popular metre of the day.

method to serve a better purpose.'

The Westminster Gazette quotes the following rime from this collection:

There was a wise man who said, 'Prayer
Is as simple as breathing the air,
If you always recall,
Whatsoever befall,

That your Heavenly Father is there.

A rector in Devonshire has devised a religious-limerick calendar. This is the entry under June, the month of the Sacred Heart:

In June English weather is hot
(Or should be though sometimes it's not),
Like the love in God's heart,
Once pierced by a dart
For the biggest and tiniest tot.

Devonshire is also responsible for a stanza celebrating Saint Thomas of Canterbury, which runs:

Dear children, your patron is dead.
Wicked soldiers cut open his head.
Though your head you'll not lose,
Still you can if you choose
Be as holy, by praying, instead.

Rough Stuff at Eton

THE English proverb that Eton produces gentlemen, Winchester men, and Harrow cads, may have to be revised. A recent issue of the Eton College Chronicle contains a plea, signed by one P. J. C. Hollick and the youthful Lord Furneaux, son of Lord Birkenhead, begging for cleaner play in the House Matches. Matches. These matches, in which Rugby and Association football are combined, are peculiar to the school. 'It is distressing' or at any rate that is the way these young aristocrats feel

'to see in the House ties at Eton deliberate kicking and fisting which would not cast any lustre on a fifthrate soccer club.' Luckily, 'the number of good players who stoop to such

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methods is wholly inconsiderable' in fact, to play unfairly is a sign of incompetence on the face of it. Matters have become so serious that fouls are now going to be penalized, and 'it is hoped that after a few of these the advantage of deliberate kicking will begin to appear questionable.' Should this penalty prove insufficient, the offenders are to be kicked off those very playing fields on which the Battle of Waterloo was won. The announcement of these changes closes with this large-minded reflection: 'It is unwillingly that we propound such drastic measures, but one must move with the times.'

English As She Is Sung DURING the recent congress of Englishspeaking Orientals in Japan new variants of several popular songs were evolved in the course of the celebrations. Since the visitors all spoke the English language, they felt that they ought to be in the musical traditions

that native and American-born speakers of the language perpetuate. That delightful old Northumbrian folk-song, 'It Ain't Gonna Rain No More,' was therefore chanted in this strange shape:

Engonnarennomo, no mo,

Hauna herru oda hoks terru

The next on the programme was 'O Brack Joe,' as they called him. This number opened with the words, 'Gau narra des wen maalt wayunga ge.' After this came a livelier 'Yes, sir, that's my baby,' which is worth reprinting in its complete form. We trust our readers know the usual words.

Yassair atsmai bebi Nossair domin mebi Yassair shismai bebi nau

En baiwe

Yassair atsmai bebi

Nossair domin mebi

Shismai bebi nau

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Professor Julian Huxley makes this amazing pronouncement: 'Biologists are almost unanimous in demanding a rational birth-control as one condition of social advance.' And this sort of statement, we presume, is called argument and science. No wonder plain people tend to lose patience when the latter word is constantly thrust upon them in support of every sort of moral heresy under the sun. — Universe

The Government of the Swiss Canton of Ticino have just enforced a law prohibiting dancing except during the first three months of the year. Every ball will have to receive police authorization. Children under sixteen years are forbidden to dance. All between sixteen and twenty must be accompanied by their parents. Daily Herald

I was dancing with my fiancé when somebody came up and told me the Prince wanted to speak to me. I was presented to him, and then he asked if I would like to dance. We danced one dance together, and then we had three encores. The Prince is a very good dancer, and very easy to get on with. I was nervous at first, but he soon put me at ease. - Miss Lylie' Huckle

A Hindu wife who cut off her husband's nose was sentenced to six months' imprisonment. The husband said he returned home with a friend late at night and told his wife to prepare tea. His wife abused him and he slapped her face. Later the wife chopped off her husband's nose with a hatchet when he was asleep. — Westminster Gazette

The Dominions have increased their tariffs in a greater ratio than our foreign customers. We shall make a great mistake, as Mr. Runciman warned us, if we depart from our leadership of the world as a Free Trade nation, especially with the impressive manifesto of the bankers and manufacturers reverberating in our ears and actually reaching Mr. Coolidge.

Westminster Gazette

Let Mr. Churchill devise a system of taxation for revenue purposes which will bear, not on the British, but on the foreign manufacturer, and he

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A new brochure advertised in the latest catalogue of the State Publishing House in Moscow, under 'Children's Reading':

IRKUTOV, A. The March.

The children of imprisoned American workers organize a march to Washington, to beg for the liberation of their fathers. During their meetings on the way the little demonstrators meet with live sympathy from the workers. The President refuses to receive them, but several bourgeois ladies get up relief for these hungry children, who, however, repudiate it with indignation.

A live tale. Concrete episodes. Revolutionary tone. Calculated for the school child and the Pioneer.

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Palmerston, by Philip Guedalla. London: Ernest Benn, 1926. 25s.

[J. St. Loe Strachey in the Spectator] MR. PHILIP GUEDALLA has achieved success in his Palmerston. He has developed an entirely new historical technique, and has triumphantly proved its value. He has not attempted to tell in detail the story of Palmerston's life and work, to make précis of his letters and speeches, or to analyze his political principles. Instead, he has created a Palmerston atmosphere. At first it seems a luminous mist in which we watch vast and shadowy forms moving distractedly. Gradually, however, out of the mist one great figure emerges, and Palmerston the man, and the greatest of political experts, stands revealed. We find, as if by a kind of enchantment, that Palmerston has come to life.

Palmerston had in the strict sense no Party, no colleagues, no followers. He could lead, and he could act with others, quite loyally and efficiently. But all the time he was looking over their heads to the British people and making them his friends and supporters. He talked uncommon good sense in the wittiest, simplest way, and somehow suggested that he was the man they all really wanted. And he was. His countrymen said in effect, 'We don't care a twopenny dam about his views, but we do know that he's a devil of a fellow. There's no nonsense about him. He never talks through his hat, or poses or pretends to be what he is n't. He never acts a part, but is always himself.' And this praise was true. 'Pam' never stood on his dignity, or finessed, or tortured past words to prove himself to have been always consistent. Therefore the country gave Palmerston an individual position different from that of every other statesman of his generation.

Curiously enough, it was the girl queen, Victoria of happy memory, who in the first year of her reign best summed up Palmerston's way of winning men's hearts and heads. He was at her first Council, and, next to Melbourne, saw her most intimately and most often in the first six weeks. She laughed at his jokes and found him 'a clever and agreeable man' and so 'very clear in what he says.' The greater British public noted exactly the same qualities, and loved him for them. He spoke his mind clearly and without reserve, and did it, not brutally, but with verve, humor, and a pleasant manner that is, clearly and agreeably.

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There was nothing of the schoolmaster about him no suggestion of telling people disagreeable home-truths for their good. Further, he was wise as well as witty, and impressed people by his marvelous knowledge of the administrative machine. He had been to school in almost every department of the State. He was Secretary of State for War at the end of the Napoleonic struggle, and helped to beat the Emperor. Later he learned the technique of the Foreign Office, the Horse Guards, and the Home Office. Above all, he studied the House of Commons and the working of the Constitution as if he had been a man of science with a microscope. His ideal of office was not to let himself be in the leading strings of the permanent officials. When he went to a new department he shut himself up in his room, writing protocols and memoranda and minutes till there was nothing that he could learn from the permanent chiefs.

That he was an arch-bluffer must be granted; but at any rate, he always managed to outbluff his antagonists. There was danger in the habit, no doubt, but courage, knowledge, and nerve again and again carried him through — victorious on an impossible hand.

As an example of Palmerston's extraordinary clearness of mind, and also of his penetration into the heart of things, I cannot do better than quote a wonderful passage on the danger of false analogies and how they capture and deceive men's minds. Whether it is to be found in a memorandum or a speech is not clearly stated by Mr. Guedalla:

Half the wrong conclusions at which mankind arrive are reached by the abuse of metaphors, and by mistaking general resemblance or imaginary similarity for real identity. Thus, people compare an ancient monarchy with an old building, an old tree, or an old man, and because the building, tree, or man must from the nature of things crumble, or decay, or die, they imagine that the same thing holds good with a community. . . . All that we hear every day of the week about the decay of the Turkish Empire, and its being a dead body or a sapless trunk, and so forth, is pure and unadulterated


Events have borne out the danger of the false analogy here depicted. Palmerston wrote his

warning in 1839, and the Turkish Empire existed as a potent if somewhat truncated Empire up till the days of Abdul-Hamid.

Fresh from reading M. Clemenceau's Demosthenes, I cannot but apply the lesson. What makes a brilliant and learned study of classical literature a positive danger is its foundation on 'the abuse of metaphors, and by mistaking general resemblance or imaginary similarity for real identity.' There is an imaginary similarity between Demosthenes and the Tiger, his classically draped puppets and living Europeans, but no real identity.

Once more, we thank Mr. Guedalla for what Palmerston might have called 'a gem.' He said Soult was 'a gem'! The book, of course, has its faults, — crudities, overallusiveness, and want of literary delicacy, but nevertheless it is an original departure, and originality is the antiseptic of literature. The pictures are very well chosen, and the earlier examples, those before the epoch of whiskers, show a man, not only very handsome, but with a real sense of charm stamped on his face.

British Documents on the Origin of the War. Edited by G. P. Gooch and Harold Temperley. Volume XI, Foreign Office Documents, June 28-August 4, 1914. Collected and arranged by J. W. Headlam-Morley. London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1926. 10s. 6d.

[W. N. Ewer in the Daily Herald]

LITTLE by little the archives of the various Foreign Offices are providing us with the material for a complete understanding of the diplomacy which preceded and created the Great War, though not until we have the whole of the evidence will it be possible to form a final judgment and to appraise the responsibility of the various men concerned.

The newest addition to our knowledge comes to-day with the publication of what claims to be a full and unexpurgated collection of the relevant documents in the archives of the British Foreign Office. The volume is to be the first in time of publication, but the last in sequence, of a series, edited by Mr. Gooch and Mr. Temperley, which is to cover the whole period from 1898 to 1914. But in this case the history of the 'ten days' of 1914- the work of collection has, for some not very clear reason, been done, not by these two distinguished historians, but by Mr. HeadlamMorley of the Foreign Office.

It will take a detailed study of the 677 dispatches now printed, and their careful collation with the other available evidence, to extract from them all that they have to tell us. But there are some-and these by no means unimportant - points which they reveal on first reading.

And, first, one may note that they justify up

to the hilt the charge which I, in common with others, made at the time—that the 'Documents' published in 1914 were not a frank disclosure of the truth, but were carefully selected and expurgated in order to remove from them any unfortunate admissions which would have thrown doubt on the story which Lord Grey and his colleagues were 'putting across' the British public.

Mr. Headlam-Morley's claim that the new publication shows that our 'suspicions were absolutely unfounded' is a piece of bland imperti


That, however, by the way. The important thing is the new light thrown upon the business by the evidence then suppressed but now revealed.

For the most part it seems to confirm what one had already suspected. There were in the Foreign Office in those critical days two points of view. The one, represented by Lord Grey himself, was working, in a rather panic-stricken fashion, for peace. The other, represented by the chief permanent officials, was convinced from the beginning that peace was impossible, and was chiefly concerned with making sure that, despite political difficulties at home, we should in a phrase used by Lord Nicolson in a dispatch on July 28'not hesitate to do our duty' by France and Russia.

Lord Grey was nerveless, hesitant, easily turned from one scheme to another. That he could calmly go away to the New Forest for the week-end in the gravest days of the crisis is a measure of his capacity. His advisers were telling him from the first that it was no use, that 'the resources of diplomacy were exhausted.' In such an atmosphere, and with a man of such weak will and such limited abilities, failure was inevitable.

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It is clear that France and Russia are decided to accept the challenge thrown out to them. Whatever we may think of the merits of the Austrian charges against Servia, France and Russia consider that these are the pretexts and that the bigger cause of Triple Alliance versus Triple Entente is definitely engaged.

I think it would be impolitic, not to say dangerous, for England to attempt to controvert this opinion, or to endeavor to obscure the plain issue, by any representation at St. Petersburg and Paris. . .

It is difficult not to agree with M. Sazonov that sooner or later England will be dragged into the war if it does come.

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