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" and laws, as well as the appellution and language “ of Englishmen." *
The whole western region, comprehended between the mountains and the sea, was occupied by the Scots, whose language is universally admitted to have been Gaelic.
Lastly, the eastern coast to the northward of the Forth, is to be allotted to the Picts, and when it shall be ascertained who the Picts were, and what was their original dialect, it will only remain
determine when and why they relinquished that dialect, for the purpose of talking English.
Such seems to have been the distribution of the country when Malcolm III. in 1057, mounted the throne of Scotland. We all know that during the usurpation of Macbeth he had been carried into England, where he spent seventeen years; and that at the end of this time he was reinstated in his dominion, by means of an army raised in Northumberland, the earldom of his uncle Siward.
Hithe to, the usual residence of the kings of Scotland had been at Forteviot, or elsewhere in
* Fecitque Kineth Regi Eadgaro homagium, sub cau. tion“ multa promittens, quod populo partis illius antiquas consuetudines non negaret, et sub nomine et linguá Anglicana permanerent. Qùod usque hodie firmum manet. Wallingford ap. Gale, Vol. III. p. 545.
the neighbourhood of the Tay; but Malcolm was induced, both by motives of taste and policy, to remove his court to the southward, to the castles of Dunfermline and Edinburgh. Having been educated in England, he might naturally prefer a residence in a Saxon province: it was no less natural, that he should wish to remove from a part of his kingdom, where the partizans of his predecessor were perhaps still numerous: and, after the conquest of England by the Normans, it became highly necessary that the kings of Scotland should be enabled, by their vicinity to the frontier, to watch over the conduct of an ambitious and powerful neighbour.
To this essential policy Malcolm was by no means inattentive. He supported to the utmost of his power, both by negotiation and by force of arms, the Saxon party in England; he married the sister of Edgar Atheling; distributed grants of lands to the companions of her exile; and afforded an asylum in his dominions to the numerous crowds of fugitives who, during the sanguinary expedition of William the Conqueror, in 1070, were expelled from the northern provinces of England. By these means he probably increased very considerably the population and industry of his country; he certainly added much to its poli
tical influence ; and we are not surprised that his long and active reign should be considered as the commencement of an important era in the history of Scotland, distinguished by a very considerable change in the manners and language of its inhabitants.
What was the precise nature and extent of this change, can now only be conjectured. Perhaps it was merely such as tended to diminish the difference between the English and Scotish dialects of the Saxon, and was occasioned by the numerous emigrations from England. At least it does not seem probable, hat Malcolm and Edgar Atheling should have introduced into Scotland the language of their bitterest enemies. Mr. Pinkerton, indeed, contends that the Norman was the universal speech of the English nobles, during the reign of Edward the Confessor: and it is certain that there existed at his court a strong Norman party; and that he employed a foreign language in preference to his own, and delighted in the conversation of Norman favourites. Yet it is rather improbable that the whole body of Saxon nobles,—that the great council of the nation, who in 1052 decreed the banishment of all those foreigners,--and who, for the purpose of securing their country against the dominion of a Norman, raised to the throne
a Saxon nobleman, distinguished by his hatred to that nation,--should have imitated the phraseology of Edward, a sovereign whom they generally and justly despised.
But, be this as it may, the Saxon party in England having been annihilated, even before the death of Malcolm, his successors had no motive for continuing an unsuccessful struggle against a power now firmly established:
His three sons, Edgar, Alexander, and David, who after the short reign of their uncle, Donald Baan, successively mounted the throne of Scotland, united themselves as closely as possible with the Norman kings of England. Their sister Matilda was married to Henry I. Alexander to Sybilla, a natural daughter of the same Henry; David to the heiress of Northumberland : and, during these three reigns, in cluding a period of 56 years, from 1097 to 1153, the intercourse between the two kingdoms appears to have been as uninterrupted, as if they had been governed by a common sovereign, David, indeed, who passed many years at the court of his brotherin-law, acquired such an affection for Norman customs, that he was considered by his subjects as a Frenchman. He seems to have adopted the whole system of Norman jurisprudence: he promoted the marriage of his female wards with
Norman barons : he encouraged, by numerous privileges, the settlement of English and Norman artisans and merchants in the Scotish towns;* and so far increased the commerce of his kingdom, that in the reign of his grandson, William the Lion, the burghs were enabled to furnish three-eighths of the whole national contribution.t I should therefore be tempted to ascribe to this reign, and to the concurrence of the above-mentioned causes, that change of language, which is generally attributed to the policy of Malcolm III.
If it were proved that the Norman-French was, at any time, the usual language of the court of Scotland, I should think it must have been so, at this period. But it is to be considered that, in these early times, the courts of princes were, during great part of the year, composed solely of their
The army of William the Lion in 1993 is said to have contained a considerable number of English; and William of Newborough observes that, at this time, they formed the bulk of the inhabitants in all the towns of Scotland. By English, the historian probably meant people who talked a language composed of Saxon and French; for it is not crea dible that the towns of Scotland were peopled with nativés of England.
+ See Stowe's Annals, A. D. 180 VOL. III,