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light of revelation ? Were it not then wiser as well as nobler in them to copy a more prudent unbeliever of old, one Gallio, whose memorable advice to his compatriots exhibits the only sensible plan of procedure in all similar cases ? -“Refrain from these men and let them alone. For if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought; but if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it; lest haply ye be found even to fight against God.” It were well also that our opponents had another scripture before their eyes “ Thou shalt not bear false witness !" Charges of " disingenuousness," “ bigotry,” &c. are easily made, but not so easily substantiated, we trust, against the pages of the Christian Observer ; yet have they, in the past month, been banded about in the daily journals with an unsparing hand. “The Lord judge between us and them !”
III.-Chapter of Correspondence. 1.- A BRA'AMAN'S VIEW OF THE GOVERNMENT CONNEXION WITH THE IDOLA.
TRY OF INDIA, &c. We avail ourselves, at the present moment, of the following sentiments of a Bráhman, believing most firmly that they convey the feelings of many of the more reflecting natives of India, and if it be the view entertained by them of their rulers, in what a light must they view their policy on the subjects of religion? Would that those in power could see the anomalous and awful position in which they place themselves by acting, in a political capacity, in opposition to their own convictions and faith. We have been reminded by it of an anecdote related by the celebrated Dr. Andrew Thompson, during the Bible Society controversy. It was told to illustrate the inconsistency of the zealous Roman Catholic, Leander Van Ess, who kept one case of Bibles with the Apocrypha for the papists, and another without it for the protestants; with one hand distributing a lie, with the other truth. The doctor observed, that it brought to his recollection the conduct of a certain German prince, also a titular bishop, who was very much addicted to swearing. Being one day reproved by a courtier for this conduct, and especially reminded of his ecclesiastical character, he replied : “Oh I do not swear as a bishop but as a prince.” The answer of the courtier was pungent and silencing: ** Well, your Highness," he inquired, “ if the prince were sent to hell for swearing where would the bishop be found ?” Men may make distinctions about character, but with God every man will be tried by his works alone.
To the Editor of the Record. SIR,
With reference to the remarks in your paper of the 5th, in regard to the support given by the government to idolatry in India, I have the pleasure to subjoin an extract from a letter which you may consider wir. thy of insertion.
Extract of a letter from a Bráhman of good family, written in 1834, to a civilian holding a high official situation.
* In my opinion Europeans will never be able to leave a nobler monument of their humanity in India, than by labouring to plant the gospel ; nor will they ever succeed in gaining the affections of the inhabitants by any other means. How short-sighted and weak must that policy be which looks upon Missionary exertion as dangerous to the stability of the British sceptre in Hindustán! That the religion of Christ shall be established, is a matter that is more certain than that the sun will rise to morrow ; for the word of God has taught us to expect the universal prevalence of Christia. nity. How foolish then must it be in those who do not now kiss the Son and serve him with fear. How long will Britain be able to retain her sceptre here by mere physical force? How long can she reign over a people if she gain not their affection, and what can be a better way of gaining their affection than by giving them the knowledge of God and of His Son Jesus Christ our Lord ?"
“ This is speaking with regard to earthly policy, but the government have a higher and more awful obligation upon them. They are responsi. ble to God for their manner of governing India : and he who has suffered them to come here for wiser reasons then they can conceive, will bring them to a severe account if they do not strive to glorify Him who is the prince of the kings of the earth.'
2.- THE IMPORTANCE OF MISSIONARIES STUDYING THE HIGHER BRANCHES OF
HINDU LITERATURE AND TAE SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. As our opinions on this subject are expressed in a previous part of this number, we refrain from any further remarks on the communication of VIDYARTHIN.
To the Editor of the Calcutta Christian Observer. GENTLEMEN,
In the numerous Missionary Journals which have from time to time for some years past been made public, there appears to be but little notice taken of the variety which exists in the sects and tenets of Hindu. ism. “ The Hindu religion," as professor Wilson remarks, " is a term that has been hitherto employed in a collective sense, to designate a faith and worship of an almost endlessly diversified description :” and an acquaintance with these manifold varieties seems an indispensable preparation for those who undertake to combat this Hydra-headed Paganism. Random generalities, which are possibly only half applicable to the audience to whom they are addressed, must in the nature of things he far less efficaci. ous, than discriminative arguments framed with specific reference to the peculiar tenets of the persons with whom the conversation is held.
Fortunately the means of attaining to a knowledge of the doctrines of these various sects are not difficult of access. The “ sketch of the religious sects of the Hindus,” by H. H. Wilson, Esq., in the 16th and 17th volumes of the Asiatic Researches, affords an abstract account of the most promi. nent varieties; and a reference to the original authorities (many of them ver. nacular) there referred to, would enable the person who was desirous of prosecuting such researches, to make himself master of the nomenclature of the different sectaries, as well as of the minutiæ of their opinions.
Besides the attention due to the popular sects, a further investigation of the tenets of the learned Hindus would seem to be the duty of every Missionary who would not avoid discussions with this class of persons
" The worshippers of Vishnu, Siva, and Sakti,” Mr. Wilson observes, (As. Res. vol. 16, page 24,)“ who are the objects of the following description, are not to be confounded with the orthodox adorers of these divini. ties: few bráhmans of learning, if they have any religion at all, will acknowledge themselves to belong to any of the popular divisions of the Hindu faith, although, as a matter of simple preference, they more espe. cially worship some individual deity, as their chosen or Ishta Devaté. They refer also to the Vedas, the books of law, the Puránas, the Tantras, as the only ritual they recognize, and regard all practices not derived from those sources as irregular and profane." To deal with pandits, therefore, a different course of reading from that above alluded to will be necessary, and their philosophical systems as well as practical tenets must be studied. Mr. Colebrooke's Essays* on the Vedas, and on the Mimausa, Nyáya, Vaiseshika, Sánkhya, &c. doctrines, will be here of great use: but a know. ledge of the original works in the Sanskrit would appear to be indispensa. ble to enable the Missionary to discuss the principles of these schools with their respective followers.
In the concluding page of the Calcutta Christian Intelligencer for April last, in an extract from the Oriental Christian Spectator, mention is made of a work in Persian entitled Mizán al Hak or a comparison between the Gospel and Qurán, by the Rev. Mr. Pfander, a Basle Missionary. If this work answers the description given of it as a very excellent volume," it cannot be too soon “ reprinted and extensively distributed" among the Musalmáns of India, and the friends of Missions ' would do well to take steps if necessary to secure this object. May 27th.
3.-APPEAL ON BERALF OF THE NATIVE ORPHAN ASYLUM AT FUTTEHPORE.
We must apologise to our friends at Futtehpore for the apparent neglect manifested in not sooner noticing their praiseworthy efforts to rescue the orphan from destruction. Wethought it better to wait until the public had aided the adults who were perishing for want of bread, knowing that these poor orphans were secure at least from starvation in the hands of their good friends. We now most cordially recommend the appeal and its objects to the benevolent sympathies and prayers of the Indian community, and shall be happy to forward any sum conveyed to us, to the Directors of the Asylum.
Futtehpore, February 23rd, 1838.
CIRCULAR. In consequence of the very great distress which now prevails through. out these provinces, a great number of orphan children of both sexes have come into our hands, whom it is our intention to bring up in the Christian religion. We have therefore opened an Asylum for the ac.. commodation of 60 male and 50 female orphans: the latter will live in our own bungalows, and be constantly under our immediate eye and care ; their instruction in English, Hindustání and useful needle work, &c. will be superintended by Mrs. Madden, assisted by a native Christian school-mistress of excellent character. Walls are at present being raised so as entirely to seclude the girls, who have a spacious play-ground within • These Essays were lately procurable in Calcutta and may be so still.
their enclosure. Our native Christian school-master, who has for four years been diligently engaged in a day-school, has undertaken the charge of the boys; and from his faithful conduct hitherto there is every reason to believe that, under the Divine blessing, our institution will prosper. The boys will, as far as circumstances and funds admit, be brought up to useful trades, and those who appear best adapted for it will be educated as teachers, The plan pursued at present in Mrs. Wilson's Female Orphan Refuge at Calcutta, will be followed in the female department. Our number is at present more than 100 ; but as we feel we could not do justice to more than that number, we shall send the surplus children to other institutions. Our monthly expenditure at present, including salaries of a Christian school-master, mistress, lalla, food, clothing, &c. is 250 rupees ; besides which we have laid out a considerable sum in buildings absolutely necessary.
To meet so large a monthly expenditure we must look beyond our immediate circle, and therefore appeal to your Christian benevolence to aid our undertaking by becoming a subscriber.
The Institution shall always be open to the inspection of the public, and subscribers will be furnished with six-monthly Reports of the state of the institution.
4.-Roman CATHOLIC MissionS AND MISSIONARIES IN CHINA, We strongly suspect that protestant Christians are not aware of the extent to which the Roman Catholic church is labouring in countries which to them are almost unknown. We have therefore taken the following extract from the Patriot newspaper, which may give them an idea of the perseverance and zeal manifested by the missionaries of that church, and of their success. Besides China proper, in Japan, though subject to dire persecutions, there are thousands of nominal Christians, and in Cochin China, not fewer than from 50,000 to 80,000. They are but nominal Christians it is true, and are often no better than their heathen neighbours, very often more lax; but the fact shows that these nations are accessible and may, be proselyted; and the zeal and perseverance of these devoted, though in many instances mistaken men, should stimulate many a protestant labourer. The poor converts often sustain persecutions worthy of the best days of Christianity, and the priests submit to privations of the most unheard of kind. Oh! slumbering Sion, awake! awake! put on thy strength. Arise for the help of these lands: let them not be turned, while you are inactive, from the errors of Paganism to the muimeries of Popery.
“ It is now fifteen years since the Roman Catholic priests were banished from Pekin, and sent with all those who were discovered in the Chinese provinces, to Macao. Yet the French monks of the order of St. Lazarus, among whom there is no want of money, union, or enthusiasm, have been secretly labouring for the maintenance of the Roman Catholic Church in Chia, and their exertions have succeeded even beyond their own expectations. For some years they have annually sent two or three young
priests to China, who quietly proceed to the head.quarters of the Missions in the interior of the country, and join in the work of conversion. There are now Roman Catholic communities in all the provinces ; and in many places there are public chapels, where service is performed uninterruptedly, since the mission have had the good sense to train native Chinese as priests. In furtherance of this object, the mission have founded two seminaries. One of these establishments is for the southern provinces, and is situated in Macao, whence the Chinese candidates are sent to Manilla, where they are ordained by the archbishop. On their return they are sent into the interior of the country, where they live in the midst of their flocks as peaceably as ecclesiastics in Europe. The other seminary is in Tartary, beyond the wall of China. In this establishment the priests destined for the northern provinces and for Pekin, are educated; for, incredible as it may appear, there is in Pekin a Catholic community amounting to more than 24,000 members! There are at this moment two French priests in the community at Pekin; for the chief direction of ecclesiastical matters cannot yet be intrusted to the Chinese priests. The provincials are therefore always Europeans, though the necessity of avert. ing the suspicion of the government obliges them to travel clandestinely, and often places very great difficulties in the way of the Missions. Christian worship is publicly performed, even in many of the principle towns. In Tschingtufu, the capital of the province of Setchuen, Christians are interred in the church-yard, and over their graves are erected crosses and other symbols of Christianity. The government, when not suspecting the presence of Europeans, observe the most perfect indulgence towards Christians.' Christian communities, too, being generally remarkable for moral and peaceable conduct, are liked by the local authorities, who having once tolerated them, are greatly interested in preventing their detection in higher quarters, because they would then be called to account for their previous want of vigilance. When, therefore, a community is once formed, it incurs very little risk of being molested. An additional guarantee of its security exists in the peculiarity of legal forms in China. The first attempts to establish a community are not very readily suppressed, because the transport of suspected persons to the seat of the higher tribunal must be at the expense of the local aythorities, who are, therefore, naturally disposed to wink at such matters, as long as they do not apprehend disturbance or public preachings, which might render them responsible. The reason why so little is known respecting the Chinese Mission is, that formerly the missionaries were chosen from among the most ignorant of the clergy, and on their return they were unable to write intelligible accounts of their proceedings. The Lazarists, however, have seen their error for some time past, and have sent out per. sons who, in addition to the possession of theological knowledge, have, like the Jesuits in earlier times, passed through a regular course of scientific education. They have now in China astronomers, botanists, &c. from whom interesting narratives may be looked for. It may reasonably be expected that ere long the Roman Catholic Missions will recover the extensive in. fluence which they enjoyed in former times. They have, indeed, already established themselves on a better footing than they have maintained since the expulsion of the Jesuits, and should they hereafter succeed in secretly forming a native Christian clergy, competent to dispense with the direct superintendance of European provincials, Christianity will undoubtedly make rapid and uninterrupted progress ; for the government seeks to suppress it not on religious grounds, but because it is an instru. ment of European influence. This observation is sufficiently corroborated