whatever, apparently just as they were obtained from time to time, setting all system as it were at defiance, and rendering the investigation of their proprieties an utter impossibility. The student is, in fact, lost in a forest of words, where literally he cannot see the wood for trees ! We defy any, save those to whom a Dictionary is of little value but as an occasional reference, to make any intelligent or safe use, generally, of this work ;-one must, at the least, have a pandit by him, to say which among the crowd of renderings is the word required in any particular application: and then where the utility or economy of a Dictionary, either in money or time? A work of such a size and price, ought certainly to offer greater advantages to those who would consult it. But it is evident that nothing short of a distinct indication of all the various shades in the meaning and application of the terms explained, the explanations too being equally distinctive, will satisfy the full intention of a dictionary—yet, with exception of Forster's imperfect volume, none of the existing Eng. lish and Bengáli Dictionaries has proceeded upon this most indispensable plan.

Had the laborious compiler taken a better English Dictionary for his groundwork, and, retaining the English meanings, inserted a pure Bengáli translation after each, his work would have earned for him a large meed of abiding praise, and been of inestimable utility both to his countrymen and to ours. As it is, not only have its size and price put it out of the reach of most, but the very multitude of its renderings, occasioning only endless confusion and doubt to the student, has, even to the few who can obtain it, so greatly lessened its utility as almost to throw it upon the shelf.

It is a perfect chaos of materials for future lexicographers; but to reduce which to order and productiveness would require no small exertion of skill, patience and exertion-an exertion, however, which we do earnestly trust some able scholar may yet be induced ere long to undertake.

This work was published at 50 Rs. Its price is now 30 Rs, and probably it may be had much lower.

No. 14. A DictiONARY, &c. English, Bengálí, and Hindústání, in the Roman character, with Walker's pronunciation of all the difficult or doubtful words. Calcutta, 1837. 1 vol. 8vo. pp. 525.

The proprietor and publisher of this work is Mr. P. S. D'Rozario, Superintendent of the Calcutta Church Mission Press, the same intelligent and enterprizing individual who has published romanized editions of the Prem Ságar and other works in Hindi and Bengálí. Except in so far as it is his property, however, this Dictionary is, erroneously though commonly called D'Rozario's Dictionary. The plan of the work is his; he selected and had transcribed the English text ; to which the Native explanations were added by different hands. The Bengálí is by the Rev. Wm. Morton, late of the Church Scy. P. G. F. P. now of the London Missionary Society; with exception of the two first letters A and B, which are the work of Bábú Táráchánd Chakrabarttí. The Hindustání is by Maulavi Zainuddin Hussain, and several other gentlemen, (Europeans it is believed.)

None of these individuals, however, were concerned in carrying the work through the press, nor consequently in the correction of the

[ocr errors]

proof sheets ; and many changes having been made in the English text (originally Corrall's Johnson) both by additions and omissions, corresponding changes after the MS. left their hands severally, were rendered necessary in the Native interpretations also; which, as the parties whose services had been engaged by the enterprizing proprietor, had already completed their stipulated tasks, were made by Mr. D'Rozario himself, and his immediate assistants. It is right this should be clearly stated; especially as, in some instances, the changes effected exhibit a deviation, in the Bengáli portion especially, from the groundplan ; which, among other peculiarities, rigidly excluded all but pure Bengáli words, except in rendering terms of European dress, furniture, &c. for which none purely native existed. Mr. D'Rozario deserves every liberal encouragement for this adventurous effort to meet the wants of the public. The romanizing controversy being hardly even yet concluded, it would scarcely be fair to assume a position decidedly either favourable or adverse to it, in passing a judgment on this publication. Time will however speedily set the question at rest ; and, if we do notgreatly mistake, the result of the late vigorous experiments is even now little doubtful.

For our own parts, if we required any additional arguments against the expediency and utility of substituting the very deficient and irregular Roman alphabet of 26 letters for the most complete and regular one in the world, (that of the Sanskrit and its derivatives, Bengáli especially,) this volume, and every other similar one, would furnish them in the insurmountable difficulties occasioned to the student by the omission or erroneous insertion of the dots, accents and other diacritical marks employed to make these 26 letters supply the place of 50. But, be the judgment of the public in regard to the scheme of Romanization what it


the execution of this Dictionary has elicited many high commendations from competent individuals ; and we believe the public at large have, by extensively purchasing the work, confirmed the judgment of Principal Mill, Mr. Yates, the Calcutta Press, &c.

The English words are followed, first by an English interpretation, then by a Bengáli one printed in Italics, and that succeeded by the Hindustáni in Roman type: the three being thus kept perfectly distinct

to the eye.

The meanings are full and generally satisfactory; circumstances, over which the proprietor had no control, compelled him to print the work, not at the Press superintended by himself, but elsewhere ; which has prevented the realizing of that degree of Press correctness and freedom from typographical errors, in the diacritical marks especially, which are such essential merits in works of this kind.

On an average of 44 words to a page, this Dictionary explains above 23,000 English words. We should much wish to see the two portions, Hindustání and Bengáli, separated in a future edition ; which, once more revised and the Native character restored, would form two invaluable dictionaries. For this recommendation, besides many other reasons that might be given, we may now notice particularly the small number of those, whether Europeans or Natives, who require to consult a double Dictionary of Hindustani and Bengáli; and consequently not only the increased size but the increased expence of the volume, in their combination, to such as employ the one language only or the other respectively. The one or the other is nearly, if not altogether, useless to most students ; why tax them to purchase both ?

Besides which, very few Natives especially are likely to avail themselves of a Romanized Dictionary, however excellent; whilst multitudes, more than ever now that English and the vernaculars are fast superseding the Persian throughout the whole country, would greedily have recourse to the same compilation if given them in their own characters, the only ones they can or are likely to be able to read at once with facility and correctness.

This work is sold at 10 Co.'s Rs. in cloth, at the Church Mission Press.

No. 15. “T39 sfsara," or A new Dictionary of the Bengáli with a Bengáli interpretation, is now in the press, compiled by Jagannáráyan Sharmá, the Editor, we believe, of the native Newspaper called the

detay, or the full-orbed moon of intelligence ! It is to extend to, at fewest, 300 pages in the small square form, printed in double columns ; which, on an average of 20 words to a column, will contain about 12,000 words and upwards, nearly double the contents of Rám Chandra Sharmá’s similar Abhidhán noticed above (No. 4.) The interpretation likewise is much fuller, and the whole compilation a very creditable specimen of purely native lexicography. We trust and believe it will meet with merited encouragement, and so induce many successive imitators to enter upon this extensive field of useful labour. We have been favoured with the portion already printed off, and rejoice to perceive it free from exotics, and that it takes in none but pure Bengali words. The general execution indeed, in a literary point of view, is highly satisfactory. The paper is good but rather thin, and has not taken the ink as well as could be desired, apparently from too great an oiliness in the latter.

The subscription price is very low, only one Rupee ; to non-subscribers it will be 1-8. We trust these will be few in number.

No. 16. The preceding are the only works of their class yet published. We possess, by purchase from the executors of the late Rev. T. Reichardt, a MS. Dictionary, in which a considerable portion of the current language of this province is explained by short illustrative sentences, written apparently by that lamented and talented Missionary's Pandit. Many are curious, no doubt; but had they been rather sentences extracted from the best native authors, they would have been invaluable, and have carried an authority which the mere ex expresso coinages of an individual must ever want. To about one fourth of the whole is superadded an English interpretation, in the hand-writing of Mr. R. The writer of these notices would cheerfully hand over the MS to any Bengali Scholar, who should wish to undertake its revision and publication, or to make use of it in forming any similar compilation.

It is right to state that the plan at least of this MS. originated with another most intelligent, able, and zealous Missionary now in Europe, the Rev. H. Townley of the Lon. Miss. Soc. Many small MS volumes exist, in the hands of different individuals, though formerly belonging to

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Bengáli Grammars and initiatory works, which will probably appear next

N. B. It is designed to follow up these notices by a similar Index of

Synopsis of the preceding Notices. No. of No. of No. of

Orig. Pres.
Author and Title.

Quality, Genl. Charac.

Where sold.
Vols. Pages, words.

Price. Price.
1 Forster's Vol. I. 1799 Sm Fol 420 8,500 E. & B. Good, but mix- Rs. Rs.

ed; distinct. 6 to 7 China Bazar.

Vol. II. 1802 Sm Fol 1 443 18,000 B. & E. Very good, but lary.


6 to 7 Ditto. 2 Mohan Prasád's Voca- 1815 8vo.

E. & B. Indifferent.

2 Ditto.
3 Carey's Dictionary. 1818 4to. 2 2160 80,000 B. & E. Mixed and in- 125 50 Serampore.

4 Rám Chandra Shar- 1820 Sm sq. 1 257 6,600 B, & B. Good and pure.

Cal. Sch. B.Depy.
ma's Abhidhán.
5 Mendies's Abridge- 1822 8vo.
298 22,500 E. & B. Good, but mix-

8 China Bazar.
ment of Johnson.

6 Abridgement of Carey. 1827 8vo. 1 531 25,000 B. & E. Mixed and in-


6 Serampore.

7 Táráchánd Chakra- 1827 12mo.
246 7,500 B. & E. Pure, but mea-

4 Cal. Sch. B. De-
barttí's Dicty.


pository. 8 Morton's Dictionary,

1828 8vo,

660 16,500 B. & E. Pure and full. 10 5 Bishop's College (with synonyms.)

and Bazar. 9 Mendies's Companion 1828 8vo.

10 524 32,500 B. & E. Good ; mixed,

4 Of the Author, B. to Johnson.

but distinct.

M. Press.
10 Marshman's Dicty. 1828|8vo.
440 23,500 E. & B. Mixed and in-

6 Serampore.

determinate. u Pearson's Dictionary. 1829 12mo.

304|12,000 E. & B. Mixed and mea. 2 2 Cal. Sch.B. Depy.

gre. 12 Haughton's Dicty. 1833 4to. 1 1461 40,000 B.S.&E. Mixed and in. 1151 100 Thacker and Co.

determinate, 13 Rám Comal Sen's 1834 4to.

106058,000 E. & B. Mixed, confus- 50 30China Bazar. Dictionary.

ed and inde

14 Romanized Dictionary 1837 8vo.
52523,000 E.& B. Good generally

10 Ch. M. Press. (D'Rozario's.) 15 Jagannáráyan's New 1838 Smsq. 1

1 Not yet out. Abhidhán.

decease prevented the publication. pains to complete the compilation, of which probably only his too early Reichardt had reduced the whole to alphabetic order, and had taken great trated, but still by sentences composed only by individual Pandits. Mr. Mr. T. in which portions of the Bengáli vocubulary are similarly illus

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



III.-Colonization and Missions-Africa.

“Nature imprints upon whate'er we see,
That has a heart or life in it-Be free."

CowPER. Colonization, Missions, Africa, –a tolerably extensive subject surely, whether it be considered in a geographical, scientific, political, como mercial, moral or religious point of view. The former topics we leave, to discuss those of morals and religion, as they are those which principally interest us as Christian Observers ; not that we are indifferent to the other topics, or think them separate from religion ; but because we believe they will be best promoted when religion exerts her benign sway over the whole earth. We will not now wait to discuss whether evangelization should precede or follow civilization; whether religion should introduce the blessings that have sprung from her to the people of Christianized lands, or whether she should follow at the bidding of her own offspring, with a tremulous and distant step. We will not discuss this, but merely remark, en passant, that whenever pure Christianity has found its way amongst a rude and barbarous people, it has invariably conferred on them the blessings of social comfort, commercial enterprize, pure morals, and elevated hopes. The Missions of the Pacific and Carribean seas, and the Missions in Africa, alike testify to the accuracy of this position. On the other hand, wherever mere commercial speculation or political ambition, or where these combined with religion, whether in a Popish or Protestant garb, have operated, what misery, bloodshed, oppression and cruelty, have followed in their train! Let the history of that beautiful country South America- let the tale of the Red Indians of the wilds of North America— let the records of the early history of the Dutch settlements, and especially that of the Cape, and indeed of every colony of every na. tion-set the whole unite to testify what misery and injustice have been inflicted on the human race by colonization unaccompanied by vital christianity. Besides, the advocates of the priority of civilization, for. get or shun the fact that whatever of civilized habits, whatever of bumanity and enterprize, they possess or carry with them, have been derived from a residence amongst Christianized and civilized people ; it is the influence which Christianity possesses over the mass of the community in which they dwelt, that has stirred them to enterprize and has made them what they are. Whatever they posses that is humane, and tender, and ennobling, they have drawn from a Christian source, but they will not acknowledge it. The slightest reference to history will demonstrate this. What did the classic Greeks do for the morals or permanent happiness of their colonies ? What did the polished heathen of Rome do towards elevating the subjects of their conquests ? Did they not find the inhabitants of their colonies barbarous, and leave them comparatively civilized demons ? And what have the mere worldly speculators, mere lovers of gain, what have they done for the people amongst whom they dwelt? Have they not introduced the worst vices of a more polished people, and violated even those ties held sacred

« ElőzőTovább »