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Doddridge's Rise and Progress, and of Keith on Prophecy, now in progress; and of the History of Daniel just published ; together with a treatise on the Lord's Supper, a volume of original Sermons supplied by various Missionary authors, another of Anecdotes, a Collection of Prayers, two or three volumes of Christian Hymns and Religious Pieces, &c. In Hindústani, there are Leslie's Truth of Christianity, the Pilgrim's Progress &c.: and further large accessions to the Native Christian library are in contemplation or in actual progress.
With the means hitherto possessed, more could scarcely have been done in this departinent; nor indeed was there a Native Christian reading community to whose use more could well have been applied. Considering the small number of Missionaries, the varied and oppressive demands upon their attention, time and labour, and many other circumstances unnecessary to be detailed but readily conceived, to say nothing of that grand want, the want of funds for the printing of large and expensive works, it is truly matter of some surprize and much thankfulness that so much even has been effected. Let but a Christian public, and especially such well-wishers to the cause as J. M. and his friends, supply the sinews of the holy war, and we confidently assert that the Calcutta Christian Tract and Book Society will not fail to meet his largest wishes ; nor, we are well assured, will zealous and willing labourers be backward to the call, but will readily hasten to lead the van in the battle of truth and holiness and human happiness.
We conclude with again directing attention to J. M.'s own very appropriate quotation from Townsend
"It is easy, however, to sit at home and form plans for the conduct of the noble-minded servants of God who have hazarded their lives unto death, and met the spiritual wickedness in high places. Hannibal smiled with contempt when the theoretical tactician lectured on the art of war. We, who remain in our homes in Europe”-(where hewrote,but equally applicable to those who occupy themselves in quite other than Missionary matters on the spot in India)-may be called the Prætorian bands of Christianity: The Missionary, like the legionary soldier, goes forth to the defence of the frontier, to combat with the barbarian enemy. Peace be with the ministers of God, and may the days of the kingdom of righteousness come ! But the Scripture is the common charter ; and it prescribes system, discipline and regulation to the best, as well as conquest orer the worst feelings.” Our lay fellow-christians will, we trust, learn a lesson of candour from the former, as our Missionary brethren may one of self-examination and caution from the jatter, portion of this excellent quotation.
VIII.- Chapter of Varieties and Correspondence.
1.- TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES IN India. The cause of Temperance in India appears not only not to progress-it actually languishes and with some few exceptions has failed. To us this is but matter of regret.
The causes are evident enough, at least those to which we attribute the present state of the Temperance Cause in India. We shall briefly advert here to them in the hope that it is not too late to remedy the evil. The efforts to establish Societies have been irregular and feeble, they have not laid hold of or influenced the body politic.—The advocates of the cause have been mere advocates, they have in many instances not practised the plans they promulgated for the regulation of others. The heads of the Society who have advocat the measure have simply sanctioned it by their presence or recommended it seriously, yet theoretically to the lower orders, who shrewdly and reasonably enough say-Physician, heal thyself. This very circumstance would in itself lead many not under the influence of religious motives, to secede from a contemplation of the subject, and this too with propriety ; for why should a man whom providence has placed in a more comfortable sphere, dictate to one in a lower grade, or judge him in the use of stimulants in the shape of ardent spirits while he drinks bountifully from the generous wine cap-both pernicious the evil being only in degree. The violence and intemperance displayed in advocating the principles of the Society has we think materially injured the cause. Many a sincere inquirer has been disgusted at the sweeping censures passed on all such as cannot see eye to eye with the advocates of Tenperance. The division in the temperance camp and the excesses of teetotalism have not made the subject more palatable either to the initiated son of Bacchus or the youthful aspirant for the convivial wreath. Disunion, irregularity, indiscretion and violence have been amongst some of the chief causes of its want of enlarged success in India. – We lament the present state of things, for nothing would give us greater pleasure thon to witness the final triumph not of teetotalism but of temperance in its scriptural and best sense ; for intemperance is and can be but an unmixed evil, and in India especially wherever it exists, an evil especially debasing to those who are its subjects and humiliating to the faith we profess and the name we bear. We turn from these strictures therefore with unfeigned pleasure to notice the manly sentiments of the Commander-in-Chief on this subject on the different occasions in which crime has sprung from intoxication in the army, and not less to witness the sanction given by his Excellency and several commanding officers to the establishment of Temperance Societies in their corps—the zeal and diligence manifested by the men in establishing and keeping up the institutions are in every respect worthy of credit. Amongst the Temperance Societies in India worthy of special notice and imitation is that of the Bengal European Regiment, the Third Report of which is now before us. Willingly would we transfer the whole to our pages, but our limits forbid. We can but make one or two extracts: the first is iu reference to success. We quote the Report :
“On the publication of the last Report our numbers amounted to 192, and the casualties since that period are as follows: two Commissioned Officers left the station, six Non-Commissioned Officers appointed to situations in Native Corps, six invalided and discharged, and two died, -amounting in all to 16.
“ The Society at present consists of one Lieutenant-Colonel, one Major, two Captains, one Surgeon, one Lieutenant and acting Adjutant, one Medical Warrant Officer, two Medical Apprentices, 46 Non-Commissioned Officers, 154 Drummers and Privates, 13 Women and 13 Youths belonging to the Regiment, and 15 individuals resident at the station,-making å total of 250, and an increase during the year of 58."
The following outline of Military Temperance Societies is concise, interesting and encouraging.
“ Having now glanced at the proceedings of our own, let us cast our eyes on those of kindred Societies throughout the country. We are sorry that our information on these points is not more complete, as nothing will tend more to the spread of Temperance than a feeling that we are not struggling alone, but form part of a mighty band who are pursuing the same course ; and we hope that our bond of union may for the future be drawn closer, by more frequent and enlarged correspondence.
“ The Society in Her Majesty's 26th Regiment of Foot at Fort William, consists of about 100 Members, and is in a prosperous state.
“ During the year a Society has been formed at Dum Dum, the Head Quarters of the Regiment of Artillery ; and though it has lately lost about 26 of its number, who are proceeding to the Upper Provinces, yet, as a detachment of Recruits and a Brigade of Horse Artillery from Kurnaul, in which is a small Society, were shortly expected to arrive, it is hoped that the chasm would be more than filled.
“In Her Majesty's 49th at Hazareebaugh, there is one of the most flou. rishing Societies in India. On the 27th ultimo, it consisted of 2 Lieute. nant-Colonels, 1 Captain, 1 Lieutenant, i Ensiyn, 1 Chaplain, 3 Warrant Officers, 77 Non-Commissioned Officers, and 314 Privates, making a total of 400 Members.
" In Her Majesty's 31st Foot at Dinapore, is a Society consisting of 198 Members.
“ Buxar, Benares and Chunar have each its Temperance Society ; that at the latter place numbers 63 individuals : their Coffee and Reading Room was opened on the 15th inst.
“At Cawnpoor, the Society in the two companies of the 5th Battalion Artillery, consisted of 103 Members, and that of Her Majesty's 16th Foot, of 248 Members, on the 29th ult. In July last, the Society in the 2nd Brigade Horse Artillery consisted of 47 Members.
“ The Society in the 3rd Buffs at Meerut, is stated to be 300 strong.
“At Kurnaul there is a remarkably prosperous Society in Her Majesty's 13th Light Infantry, consisting of 320 Members, among whom are 25 who abstain from all intoxicating liquids whatever; and the Society in the troop of Horse Artillery which recently left that Station for Dum Dum, amounted to 12 Members.
" At Agra besides our own, there is a small Society in the 4th Battalion of Artillery, which we hope daily to see gather strength and increase in numbers.
“ These few scattered items of intelligence, though embracing but about a half of the European Troops in this Presidency, are sufficient to show that we are not solitary labourers, but rather part of a mighty host travelling one great road of improvement, which ought to excite in us a spirit of emulation, and a determination not to be outstripped in so glorious a course, but to equal, if not excel, the most zealous of our competitors."
From the First Report of the Singapore and Malacca Temperance Society just received we gather that the cause is prospering in the Straits—may it extend and abide. While on this topic it may not be amiss to call the attention of our readers to the intemperance of eating, which medical testimony reports as much more prevalent and destructive in the higher circles in this country than that of drinking ; nor should intemperance in dress be omitted, for our advocacy of the principle extends to intemperance not in drinking merely but to every thing indulged in at the expence of health, reputation and usefulness. The attention of the Friends of Temperance in India should not be confined simply to Europeans, but should be directed to the native community, and endeavour to strike at the root of ganjasmoking and opium-eating, two of the greatest banes which can afflict a people.
2.-SCHOOLS AND IMPROVEMENTS IN ARRACAN, In our number for January we stated that various general improvements were about to be carried into effect and district schools established at the principal stations in the Arracan province. We find that we erred in stating that the improvements were to be carried into effect out of the Port Funds, these funds bave been exclusively devoted to the lighting and safety of the dangerous coast of Arracan. They have now been accumulating for several years, the annual income being about 7000 or 8000 Co.'s Rs. and it is but justice to government to state that when it has been expended it has been on the coast
“For out of the sums collected at Akyab and Khyouk Phyoo a complete series of five large buoys were laid down about two or three years ago in the most judicious positions at the entrance of either harbour, by which the navigation has been rendered perfectly safe and easy; pucka wells have been construeted and tanks dug for the use of the shipping, and there being a large and increasing balance it has been resolved to erect a sub. stantial jetty at Akyab with a bungalow attached. One light-house is also to be built at the mouth of the Akyab river and another on Saddle Island near Khyouk Phyoo, and probably a third on Saint Martin's Island, a dangerous rock, surrounded by reefs, between Akyab and Tek Naaf:likewise tripods and other marks wherever they can be of use to navigators. Year after year the proceeds of the port dues will be expended on something new, and there is every reason to believe that in time the navigation of the Arracan Coast will be rendered as safe as any part of that of England. A small harbour establishment at Akyab has been sanctioned which affords great convenience to all visiting that rising port. Government has already had the whole coast carefully surveyed at a great expence. The beautiful charts of Capt. Ross and of Lieut. Lloyd of the Bombay marine, as also of Capt. Laws and the officers of H. M. S. Satellite, and of other scientific men, furnish most accurate guides to all parts of it. The most prominent dangers are the “ Oyster reef,” about twenty miles from the Akyab Harbour and the “ Terribles” about the same distance from Kyouk Phyoo ; but it is expected that the intended lights will shed their lustre sufficiently far seaward to indicate to mariners their exact position, and enable them to steer clear of them. Much credit is due to Government, and to the Marine Board for the humane anxiety evinced by these projected im. provements, and the determination to expend the port funds entirely in reducing the dangers of the Arracan coast, and although it will necessarily take a few years to effect all that is intended it is gratifying to know that attention has been directed to so praise-worthy an object. Nothing is more wanted than a jetty at Akyab, but to be of any utility it must be about 650 feet long, which will cause it to be an expensive undertaking, but we doubt not its construction is in good hands.
“ For the improvement of the town and station of Akyab we understand the Government has made liberal assignments from the Ferry funds of the district. When the place is thoroughly drained, and good roads and bridges are constructed the residents will derive much benefit from the change.
“ îVe find that instead of having schools at each of the four stations in the province that the Government having at the recommendation of the Committee granted 500 rupees per mensem from the General Revenues of Arracan, (the Education Committee having no available funds,) it is Capt. Bogle's intention to have one good day-school at Akyab where there is a population of about 16,000 souls, and another at Ramrue where there are about 8,000 people. This is considered a better plan than having a larger number of sehools of an inferior quality.
Missionary and Religious Intelligence.
1.- MISSIONARY AND ECCLESIASTICAL MOVEMENTS.
Since our last the following arrivals have added to the Missionary strength in India.- Rev. J. McDonald and Mrs. McDonald, of the Scottish Missio and the Rev. J. Norgate, of the Church Mission Society ; both are, we believe, to labour in Calcutta : may the great Lord of the harvest give them
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