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Meteorological Register, kept at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, for the month of December, 1837. Mioimum Temperature Maximum Pressure Observations made at Maximum temperature
Minimum Pressure Observations made at observed at sun rise. observed at 9h. 50m.
Apparent Noon. observed at 2h. 40m. observed at 4h. Om.
sun set. Temperature. Wind.
Temperature. Wind. Temperature. Wind. Temperature, Wind. Temperature. Wind. Temperature. Wind
| Day of the Month.
1 29,960 70,461,963,3 cm. .01273,5 77,4175,0 N. E. 1.998 77,2 83,0 79.0 E. ,948 78,8 81,979,5
,914 77,5 80,0 77,2 ,944 76,275,275,0
N. .000 78,3 82,5 77,31 N. ,000 77,6 79,476,7 N. ,008 76,074,974,6 Cm.
N. ,976 75,5 79,9 7,0 N. ,970 75,0 78,774,5
,97674,7 74,073.5 N.
,980 73,6 72,572,0 Cm.
N. 1,002 75,5 78,6 73,5 N. .004 75,0| 75,372,2 N. ,005173,5 72,272,2 Cm. 7 ,03267,355,5 57,0
,980 73,0° 72,0171,91 Cm.
,982 73,7 75,8 73,5 N. ,987173,372,772,0 Cm.
,02474,1) 75,072.6 ,987 74,679,0| 74,3 N. E. 1.987 74,5 76,873,8 x.b E. ,990 73,6 72,0 71,5 Cm.
N. ,079 75,4| 80,075,2) N. 1,030 76,7 82,+ 78,0 N. 1,030 76,1 79,6 77,0 ,030 75,574,073,8 cm.
N. ,028171,972,772,5 N.
,00+ 75,5 76,5 72,0
,00473,9 74,673,5 Cm.
N. ,164173,3 74,7 69,8 N. ,147 76,81 79,473.0x.b E.,096 77,5 80,075,0 N. ,083 76,7| 77,773,0 N. ,095 73,9 74,972,5 N. 20 114168,857,8 52,0 N. 144168,5 70.967,8| N. ,132 71,973,5 69,0
N. ,080 7.5,6 75,9 71,0 N. ,068 73,073,467,0| N. ,077 71,870,0 66,6 N. 21 ,126/67, 65,0 56,5 N. ,177 67,368,062,8| N. ,154) 71,072,3) 68.8
N. 1,086 72,7) 77,0 71,0 N. ,074 72,074,267,1 N. ,08071.5 68.667,7 N.
,084 61,964,355,5 N. ,130 66,068,563,0 N. ,096 71,374,670,0 N. ,034 73,3 77,5 71,8 N. 1,017) 72,01 74,067,7) N. ,028 71,307 0 67.3 Cm.
.035 73,276,3 73.5 N. ,972 15,079,5 74,0 N. w.,972 73,275,372,5 N. ,98771,5 70,871.51 N. 29 30/29.930 65,3 55,0 56,3 Cm. ,006 64,953,0 55,9 cm.,042 69, 70,865,2w.bn..018 71,8 77,0 71,0'w.bn..954 73,578,073,5 x. 2.1.940 72,7 74,072,1 W. ,98570, 73,0 68,91 w.
,95271,370,070.8 Cm. ,058 72,478,070,8 W. 311
,990 73,7 79,4 73,3 W. ,976 72,976,072,0w.b n.,948 71,670,170,6 cm. ,930,66.4/57,058,8 Cm. 1,880170,51 71,567,71 cm. 1,9421 69,01 77,9 71,8 N. w..900 72,7| 79,31 73,6 N. W.888 72,8 77,772,!! W 896126.96.36.1990
CALCUTTA CHRISTIAN OBSERVER.
No. 70.- March, 1838.
1.- The Baconian Philosophy applicable to the mental
regeneration of India. To the Editors of the Calcutta Christian Observer. SIRS,
In the Edinburgh Review for July last is to be found an able Essay on the Life and Works of Lord Bacon, in which the deplorable weakness and mean ness of the grovelling and servile courtier and man of the world, are exhibited in what can never cease to be regarded as a most astonishing and humbling contrast with the calm, philanthropic and prophetic wisdom of the sage. The object which I have in view in noticing the article, is to draw attention to what the writer (who, I have heard it supposed, is Mr. Macaulay) assumes to be the distinguishing merit and characteristic of Lord Bacon's philosophy, and to point out the application of the views, there expounded and elucidated at length, to the intellectual condition of India.
2. The Edinburgh Reviewer asserts that the merit of Lord Bacon is not that he drew attention to the true method of philosophizing, or taught men to reason by induction-a thing they Vere always accustomed to do--but that he directed their thoughts to the true end of philosophy, to seek for palpable and substantial truth instead of words, for fruit instead of leaves. Plato and Seneca are quoted to prove that the ancient philosophers scorned the idea that it was at all the business of philosophy to ameliorate the physical condition of mankind. They, it is asserted, proudly held that she was not the handmaid who should minister to man the blessings and conveniences of life, but the divine instructress who should teach him to live independent of them and to regard them with contempt. Bacon, on the other hand, exploded all this false refinement, and taught that no office was too humble for pbilosophy, which could in any way alleviate human suffering or auginent the sum of human happiness.
3. The truth and common sense of Bacon's philosophy has commended it to the reason of the learned of Europe ; and with what splendid results every one knows. The command of nature, and the material benefits resulting to men, are there sought after with adequate zeal and energy. The application to India is obvious. The followers of Plato (as far as the Reviewer's judgment applies to him) and of Seneca, are paralleled or outheroded in Hindustan, by the disciples of Vvása, Kupila, Pátanjali, and Gotama, the adherents of the Vedanta, 'the Mimánsá, the Sánkbya, and the Nyáya schools of philosophy. Though little read in the Hindu systems, I may, I think, safely venture to say that their spirit coincides with that of the Grecian and Roman philosophy, or is even more exclusively speculative. It is not probable that they, whose philosophy proposes to free its votaries from the polluting contact of matter, to whom all things visible and tangible are 1 (delusion) and the mere degrading encumbrances of the eternal spirit, should deign to apply their speculations to the advancement of men's physical well-being. Those systems whose aim and boast it is to train up ascetic gymnosophists, are obviously most eminently adverse to the scientific cultivation of the arts which civilize and adorn human life.
4. The existence of several Shástras on sciences having a reference more or less direct to practical purposes, as the medical Shastra (A'yurveda) the Shilpa or mechanical Shástra (whatever it may be) and the Mathematical and Astronomical Siddhántas, is not sufficient to invalidate the position that the general spirit of Hindu philosophy is speculative. If India has her Bhaskaráchárya and others, Greece could no less boast of her Euclid, her Archytas and her Archimedes. Yet the latter, as the Edinburgh Reviewer remarks, despised those mechanical results of his mathematics which carried terror and destruction into the fleet of the besiegers of Syracuse ; and esteemed its pure truths as the only legitimate and worthy offspring of philosophy. Bháskara, perhaps, might have used to think in the same style.
5. But further, the spirit of Hindu philosophy is amply exhibited by its results. İt produces no tangible advantage. It is utterly unfruitful in physical benefits. It may be useful in exercising the subtilty of those who study it ; but it wastes ingenuity and energies which might be more profitably employed :-it possibly refines some spirits which might otherwise be grovelling in sensuality, directed to the sordid pursuit of gain by craft and fraud, or evaporated in vacant indolence :but it might be exchanged, with the prospect of incalculable gain, for that true philosophy which, in admirable consonance with true religion, while it is in perfect harmony with the most ardent pursuit of “the glory that shall be revealed” in “that which is to come," has also the promise of the life that now is."
6. How then, is this most essential and necessary revolution to be effected, in the spirit of Indian philosophy ? How is it to be converted into a Baconian, practical, fruitful philosophy ? Where is the Bacon? Or rather where are those humble followers of Bacon, who require no fresh principles, but have only to place before the schoolmen of Hindustan the tried principles which the latter know not or despise ? Let us hope the attempt will be made, and that soon and zealously, to renovate the spirit without rejecting the existing forms of Hindu philosophy. Sanskrit is evidently the medium to be adopted for conveying a brief exposition of Bacon's philosophy. Nor is success to be despaired of. Seneca doubtless retained till death the principles he had so long cherished. But no salutary influences, no genial breath of a unore beneficent philosophy, which cares for the physical while it is consistent with or conducive to the spi. ritual good of man, existed to operate on him. This philosophy, however, is now dominant, is visibly in the ascendant and within the horizon wbich bounds the Hindu philosopher's view, if not yet in actual contact with his mind. Why should his improvement be considered hopeless ?
“ Alas, what differs more than man from man !
Foretasted, immortality presumed." -7. The learned men of Hindustan are, both on their own account and on account of the influence which they exert on the population around them, deserving of more attention than they now receive from those who make the welfare of India the
* Wordsworth. Excursion, Book IX.
object of their labours. The pride and prejudices of the class in question are indeed serious obstacles in the way of their adopting sound principles in religion and philosophy; and the means by which they are to be acted upon, viz. treatises prepared in Sanskrit, carefully compiled and well reasoned, and framed with an accurate knowledge both of the systems to be exploded and that to be enforced, are such as can be obtained only by the application of skill, labour and pains. If it be quixotic to hope that these difficulties should only operate as additional incentives to urge to action those who aim at the regeneration of universal Hindustan, it may at least be fairly expected, that the grandeur of the results to which such labours would pave the way should be found an adequate motive for the perseverance of the Christian Philanthropist. January 24th.
II.--Paul's Prayers Answered, Part 3rd. “ Night and day praying exceedingly that we might see your face, and might per. fect that which is lacking in your faith. Now, God himself even our Father, and oar Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way unto you."-1 Thess. iii. 10, 11.
There are three things observable in this prayer of the Apostle, besides the subject of it. 1, Its earnestness. 2, Its piety. And 3, The objects to whom it is addressed.
1. Its earnestness. “ Night and day praying exceedingly.” There are some men, nay the most of men, that would be greatly offended by a repetition of the same request from the same individual. But God's ways are not as our ways, nor his thoughts as our thoughts. The Apostle prayed
night and day ;' and we may presume he means by this, every night and every day, regarding the same thing: and what he did, in this respect also we may presume was not wrong. God is not offended with reiterations of this kind. This is his way, and it will be to our advantage to comply with it. Have we, therefore, prayed for the forgiveness of our sins ? Let us continue to do so. Christ himself has thus instructed us to act in the prayer which he taught his disciples. Have we prayed for the sanctification of our souls, for the conversion of the world, and for the prosperity of the Church? Let us still urge these requests; for this is acceptable to God. And let us do so with earnestness" Praying exceedingly.” Prayers often fail because of their languor. The petitions which God hears are those which assume the form of cryings night and day unto him. Luke xviii. 1—7. It is not meant by this that we should indulge in vociferation ; but that we should endeavour to have a deep impression of the importance of those things which we ask, and that we should urge them with corresponding earnestness of heart and expression. And such prayers we may be certain God will answer. “Shall not God avenge his own elect, who cry day and night unto him, though he bear long with them?”
2. Its piety. The Apostle prayed exceedingly that he might see the face of the Thessalonian Christians, and for what? Not for any temporal object, but that he might be instrumental in perfecting that which was