purpose the bark is thrown into pits containing water, and the skins are allowed to soak in the liquid for many weeks.

5. The wood, which is hard and durable, is especially fitted for ship-building, and is much used for pulpits, pews, and carved ornaments in our places of worship. In some of the warmer countries, acorns form a part of the food of the poor people.

6. The gall-nut and the oak-apple, both of which grow on the smaller branches and leaves of the oak, are produced by the puncture of a little fly, in which it deposits an egg. They are used in making ink and in dyeing black. Even oak saw-dust is of great value to the dyer, being employed in the dyeing of fustian.

7. Oaks grow in many other countries besides England. That useful and well-known substance, cork, is the bark of a kind of oak which grows in Portugal, Spain, Italy, the southern parts of France, and the Barbary States in the north of Africa.

yield, give.
originally, first.
obtained, got.
aid, help.

protected, screened.
employed, used.
durable, lasting
ancient, old.

beau-ty at-tain-ed e-nor-mous or-na-ments
be-gin-ning quan-ti-ties pro-ba-bly dye-ing
in-di-gen-ous squir-rel li-quid fus-ti-an
val-u-a-ble suf-fi-cient es-pe-ci-al-ly sub-stance

What are timber trees? What are those trees, flowers, and animals called which belong to a country? Name

some native trees in England. Which is the largest of our trees? What is the seed of the oak called? What animals feed on acorns? How long does it take the oak to come to its full size? Where may some noble oaks be seen? How old are some of them? Of what use is the bark of the oak? What things are made of oak? Of what use is the gall-nut? What is cork?



1. Next to the oak, the elm is the handsomest of our English timber trees. It grows to a great height,

and with its wide-spreading branches extending from its trunk all round,

a large extent of ground with its shade. In the early spring, it is one of the first trees to put forth its leaves, which are of a brighter, lighter green than those of the oak.

2. Elm trees are not generally found in the woods, but are usually

planted in rows by the side of the roads leading to gentlemen's houses. When thus placed, they form very pleasant shady groves to walk under during the heat of summer.

3. The wood of the elm is well adapted for waterwheels, the bottoms of ships, and the large piles which are driven in to keep up the embankments of rivers.


4. It is hard and tough, and does not readily rot when exposed to the damp; for that reason coffins are commonly made of elm.

5. It is also used for carving and for the main timbers in strong buildings. The leaves of the elm form very good food for cattle, and might well be used for that purpose during a scarcity of hay and grass. trunk, body

piles, stakes. extent, piece.

exposed, subjected. generally, often.

main, chief. adapted, fitted. scarcity, want

hand-som-est light-er read-i-ly build-ings spread-ing u-su-al-ly com-mon-ly cat-tle bright-er em-bank-ments carv-ing pur-pose

Which is the handsomest of English timber trees after the oak? Of what colour are its leaves! Where are elmtrees usually planted? For what is the wood of the elm well adapted? Why will not the wood of the elm readily rot? To what use may the leaves of the elm be put in a time of scarcity of hay and grass?


1. The beech, a very fine noble-looking tree, may be known by its rounded leaf, its smooth mottled bark, and its large knotted roots.

2. Beeches frequently grow in woods, though they are also common by the sides of our country roads. In some parts of the country there are large woods composed almost entirely of beech trees.


3. There is a beautiful wood of this kind in Nottinghamshire, called Birkswood. It is in the district of Sherwood Forest. 4. In the autumn the ground in the beechen woods

is covered with the seed,
which is called beech-mast.
There are sweet little ker-
nels inside. These
eaten by deer, squirrels,
and pigs.

5. Beech wood is hard and durable, and is much used by the turner, who makes with it washingbowls, posts for bedsteads, large screws, and many

kinds of toys. It is also made up by the cabinet-maker into various articles of furniture.


mottled, marked with durable, lasting. spots of different colours.

cabinet-maker, maker composed, formed. of furniture.

knot-ted dis-trict
fre-quent-ly beau-ti-ful
en-tire-ly beech-en

ker-nel va-ri-ous
wood-en ar-ti-cles
bed-steads fur-ni-ture

What kind of tree is the beech? How may it be known? Where do beeches generally grow? Where is there a beautiful wood of beech trees? What is the seed of the beech called ? What animals feed upon the kernel? By whom is beech wood much used? Why?

No. IV.—THE Ash.

1. The ash is generally grown in woods, and though a tall tree, is not nearly so bushy or compact in appearance as the elm or the beech. The bark is smooth

and light coloured. The leaves, which are of a dark green colour, do not come forth until late in the spring, and fall off early in the autumn.

2. The seeds of the ash are what are called winged seeds. They have a kind of wing or feather attached to them, so that they are easily blown

about and carried to a great distance by the wind. We must all know some flowers which have winged seeds. The common yellow dandelion bears such seeds.

They look almost like a ball of feathers on the top of a green stem, and children frequently blow them off in sport.

3. The seed of the ash, scattered far and wide, frequently springs up in the midst of old ruins, and in the course of time the roots penetrate into the mortar between the stones. Very fine ash trees are often met with in such places.

4. The wood of the ash is strong and tough. As it will not readily split, it is much used for making plough handles, spokes of wheels, waggons, ca ts, and most implements of husbandry.

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