covered America. He had obtained the patronage of Queen Isabella, who ordered a fleet to be fitted out to enable him to make his discoveries.

6. Shortly after the discovery of America, Spain became very rich and powerful. She had conquered nearly all the West India Islands, Mexico, and the chief countries of South America. Immense quantities of gold and silver were brought from these countries to Spain; but as she treated the conquered people with great cruelty, and did not use her vast powers to promote their welfare, these colonies were of little benefit to her.

7. The south of Spain is hot and semi-tropical. Rice and maize are grown in abundance, and oranges, lemons, citrons, figs, olives, and grapes, attain great perfection. The climate in the north and west is mild, and here the great cork forests are found on the slopes of the mountains.

8. Spain suffers much from the loss of her forests, which foolishly have been cut down. Around Madrid, the capital, the country is almost treeless, and in consequence is dry and barren, although at one tim it was very fruitful and productive.

9. The wild animals found in Spain are the wolf, bear, boar, and on the rock of Gibraltar the Barbary ape.

Wild bulls are found in Andalusia. Mules of a fine breed are much used in the transport of goods across the precipitous mountains. The Merino sheep are natives of Spain, and are noted for their wool, which is long, silky, and of good quality.

10. One of the wonders of Spain is the famous palace of the Escurial, the largest palace in the world. The ground plan is in the form of a gridiron. It is a dreary-looking building, built in a barren stony part of the country, about twenty-seven miles from Madrid. It was built by King Philip II. in memory of his victory over the French in 1563.

11. The exports of Spain are chiefly wine, nuts, oranges, wool, lemons, and cork, which is the bark of a tree growing in her forests.


12. One small part of Spain, called the Rock of Gibraltar, belongs to this country. It is a huge rock three miles long, and 1439 feet high, connected with Spain by a narrow low isthmus. It is very strongly fortified, and has numerous long galleries cut in the rock, in which are placed many cannon. This rocky fortress was taken from the Spaniards by the English, under Sir George Rooke, in the year 1704. Several attempts have since been made by the French and Spaniards to re-take it from the English, but they have always been unsuccessful.

13. One siege by the soldiers and fleets of these two nations lasted four years, and was only raised by the English firing red hot shot at the combined fleets; thus setting the ships on fire, and causing their destruction.

Julius Cæsar, a Roman Columbus, the discoverer

general who died 44 B.C. of America. conquered, overcame. transport, to take from inhabitants, people. place to place. Pyrenees, a range of gridiron, a cooking uten

mountains between sil.

France and Spain. Mexico, a country in Cencivilization, culture.

tral America. Oriental, Eastern. numerous, very many. expelled, driven out.

attempts, efforts. immense, very large.

connected, joined. maize, Indian corn. fleets, war ships.


in-vad-ed or-der-ed

o-ri-gin-al-ly in-va-sion en-a-ble pal-a-ces in-tro-duc-ed ad-vanc-ed per-fec-tion quan-ti-ties pe-cu-li-ar in-dus-tries con-se-quence Span-i-ards for-ti-fi-ed Al-ham-bra Gib-ral-tar pen-in-su-la A-mer-i-ca pa-tron-age Mer-i-no re-mark-a-ble pre-cip-it-ous

Where is Spain situated? What does it form part of ? Who first conquered the inhabitants? Who was Julius Caesar? At what period did he live? What people afterwards conquered Spain? Where did the Visigoths come

from? Where did they settle? What nation afterwards conquered the south of Spain? Where did the Moors come from? What religion did they profess? Describe the Moors. What did they introduce into Spain? How long did they live in Spain? What splendid palace did they build? What sovereigns expelled them from Spain? In what year? What other remarkable event happened in this year? What countries did Spain conquer in America ? Why have her colonies not done her much good? Name some fruits that grow in Spain. Name the wild animals found in Spain. What splendid breed of sheep are natives of Spain? What fine palace is Spain noted for? Who built it? What part of Spain belongs to England? What year was it taken from the Spaniards? What nations have since attempted to retake it from the English ?


1. Nothing lasts that is not good;

Nothing stands that is not true;-
What a thing misunderstood,

What a thought kept out of view!
O pretences, shams and cheats,

You may strut your little day,-
But confusion swiftly meets,

And surely drives you all away!

2. Never yet was Truth assail'd,

But the struggle gave it strength; “Great is Truth and has prevail'd,”

Always comes to pass at length;

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12 ratani shams beguile,

1 stot where error rules.

6. Ay;-hat look a little higher,

Forward post your eager eye, You that gloriously aspire,

And on God and Right rely; Evil perishes-forsake it,

Falsehood dies—renounce its sway,— Tut the Good, for treasure take it,

And secure the True to-day!

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