9. A fever, called the Malaria, is prevalent in Central Italy, and on the West coast. Whole districts

. that once supported a large population are now uninhabitable.

Wild animals are not numerous. They are the wild boar, the chamois, wild goat, and porcupine.

10. Fruits and vegetables are grown in abundance, and are excellent in quality. The chief are the olive, lemon, orange, maize, vine, citron, and rice. The mulberry tree is cultivated to a large extent—the leaves forming the chief food of the silkworm. Italy, indeed, produces more silk than any other European country.

11. The minerals of Italy are not very important. They are chiefly iron, lead, quicksilver, sulphur, and alum. In the Apennines are found many marble quarries. The most famous quarry is that of Carrara, which supplies the finest statuary marble.

12. Italy is remarkable for its volcanoes; the most noted being that of Vesuvius, near Naples. Nearly 2000 years ago this volcano was celebrated and described. In A.D. 79, one of its eruptions overwhelmed and buried two old towns, Pompeii and Herculaneum. These towns have been partly excavated within the last hundred years, and the details of Roman life at the time of their destruction have been revealed to us with wonderful clear


13. Mount Etna, in Sicily, one of the Italian Islands, is the largest volcano in Europe. It is nearly 80 miles around its base, and is very frequently active. In the Lipari Islands, near the Italian coast, is a

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small volcano named Stromboli, which is so active that there is an eruption every fifteen minutes.

14. Italy has for centuries been noted for her great scholars, painters, sculptors, and scientific men. Her schools and universities were the nurseries of the arts and sciences. In the middle ages the most promising pupils from foreign countries were sent to these universities. They copied the fashions of the country, studied its architecture, imitated the poets, and bought up, as most valuable treasures, the works of the painters and sculptors.

15. Even at the present day, Italy is the home of art, and painters go there from all parts of the world


to see and copy the works of the great painters, Titian, Raphael, Michael Angelo, &c.

16. The capital of Italy is Rome, the most wonderful city in the world. Not only does it contain


the largest church, St. Peter's, but it has also 364 other churches, many of them most beautiful in design and decoration.

17. Rome has also many palaces, one of which, called the Vatican, the residence of the Pope, contains several thousand rooms and many magnificent picture galleries. In these are to be found the choicest sculpture and the most splendid paintings which the most talented men who have lived in Italy have produced.

18. In addition to these, there are in Rome many curious monuments of antiquity, remains of the old Emperors who conquered the world.

There are vast baths, aqueducts to convey water, great statues, pillars, and arches. One monument, called from its immense size the Coliseum, was a great amphitheatre, or circus, capable of seating 80,000 persons. It was in this amphitheatre that fights between men and beasts, or between different kinds of animals, took place.

centuries, hundreds of tropical, countries near years.

the equator. civilization, culture. profusion, great abunestablished, formed.

dance. colonies, offshoots from a lavishes, gives liberally.

nation that settle in a prevalent, common. foreign land.

volcano, a burning mounconstructed, made.

tain. originally, first.

excavated, dug out. fertile, productive. frequently, often. picturesque, like a pic- magnificent, splendid. ture.

antiquity, old times.

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Give a description of Italy. What was its state 1800 years ago? What did it establish? In what countries? What did the Roman armies construct in the countries they conquered? Name some towns in England that were Roman colonies. Where is Italy situated? What seas nearly surround it? What range of mountains runs through its entire length? Name some large plain in Italy. What is found on the northern side of it? What fruits and plants grow there ? Describe the climate. What parts of Italy are unhealthy? What is the cause of its unhealthiness ? What is the name of the fever prevalent there? Name the wild animals of Italy. What are the chief fruits grown? What tree is grown largely? Why? What famous marble is obtained from Italy? What is a volcano? Name the most celebrated in Italy. What two old cities did it cover with lava and ashes ? Name the other volcanoes of Italy. For what has Italy been noted during many centuries? Name three of her greatest painters. What city is the capital of Italy? How many churches are there in it? For what else is Rome noted ?


1. Why do we speak of a “little thing,"

And “trifles light as air?”
Can aught be a trifle which helps to bring

One moment's joy or care?
The smallest seed in the fertile ground

Is the germ of a noble tree;
The slightest touch on a festering wound,

Is it not agony?
2. What is a trifle? A thoughtless word,

Forgotten as soon as said !
Perchance its echo may yet be heard

When the speaker is with the dead.

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