vise some means by which he could convey the coal from his pits at Worsley to Manchester more cheaply and rapidly than could then be done. Hence he


formed the design of making a canal about ten miles long. He was advised to apply to James Brindley, and to put the matter entirely into his hands. This was in 1759.

12. In order to complete this work it was necessary to carry the proposed canal over the river Irwell. Brindley proposed what is called an "aqueduct," by which this could be done. These aqueducts are now very common, but at that time such things had never been heard of in this country.


People laughed at the idea of carrying water over water. The Duke was told he was throwing away his money. But both the Duke and Brindley persevered. The thing was done, and the canal completed.

13. From this small beginning, our large canal system took its rise. Brindley lived to plan, and to a large extent execute, three hundred and sixty miles of canals. Trade was thus vastly increased. The price of fuel and other necessaries of life was much reduced. Comforts, that had never been known before, were placed within the reach of the poorest and humblest. Brindley died in 1772, in the fifty-sixth year of his age.

14. Such were the small and humble beginnings of our present system of travelling. enormous, very great. finally, at last. imitate, copy

devise, plan. minute, small.

aqueduct, a structure for details, separate points. conveying water from thorough, complete. one place to another.

con-vey-ance system wheel-wright sat-is-fac-tion mid-dle use-ful ma-chin-er-y at-ten-tion active ap-pren-tice re-lief

be-gin-ning Where was the first canal ever made in England? Who was our first great canal maker? Where was he born? Give an account of the apprenticeship of James Brindley. Describe his success at Clifton. What did the Duke of Bridgewater want to do? What plan did he form to carry out his design? What do you mean by an duct?” Where was the first aqueduct made? What


it was scrambling up a hill, he got into the basket behind, which was put there to carry luggage. But when they began to go down hill he was beaten on


all sides by the shaking boxes and trunks. “Then,” he says, “all the boxes began, as it were, to dance around me; everything in the basket appeared to be alive, and every moment I received such violent blows that I thought my last hour had come.” He was glad to creep back, as soon as he could, to his old seat.

5. In 1789 the Prince of Wales, afterwards George the Fourth, was upset, as he was riding in his carriage from Wentworth House, near Sheffield, to London. The Prince's coach, when near Newark, was overthrown by a cart in a narrow part of the road, and, rolling down a slope, was dashed to pieces. Strange to say, the Prince was not very much hurt.

6. An account is given of the way in which the merchants of Manchester carried on their business in the last century. One who made a large fortune, used to carry his own goods on pack-horses from town to town. He was thus absent from home for the greater part of the year, and performed all his journeys on horseback. He carried his money in his saddle-bags. He was exposed to all kinds of weather, and to the dangers of highway robbers, who abounded at that time. No private carriage was kept in Manchester until the year 1758. 7. In Scotland, matters were even worse.

There were hardly any regular roads at all, and it was a difficult matter to go from one town to another, especially in winter. There were merely tracks across moors, and when one track became too deep, another was made by the side of the old one.

8. The first coach between Edinburgh and Glasgow commenced running in the year 1749, but it took two days for the journey of forty-four miles.

9. A carrier's cart took a fortnight to get from Selkirk to Edinburgh, a distance of thirty-eight miles. On the morning of the carrier's starting, the people of Selkirk would gather round him to wish him a safe return. In the winter the carrier did not attempt the journey.

10. We read of a nobleman travelling in his own carriage in 1760 through the south-western districts of Scotland. He was obliged to take with him a party of labourers to lift his carriage out of the ruts. But, after all, the carriage several times got fast, and when about three miles from a village called was thought of the proposal to make this aqueduct? How many miles of canals were planned and constructed by James Brindley? When did Brindley die?

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1. "Little by little," an acorn said,

As it slowly sank in its mossy bed;
“I am improving day by day,
Hidden deep in the earth away.”
Little by little each day it grew;
Little by little it sipped the dew;
Downward it sent out a thread-like root;
Up in the air sprung a tiny shoot.
Day after day, and year after year,
Little by little the leaves appear;
And the slender branches spread far and wide,
Till the mighty oak is the forest's pride.


Far down in the depths of the dark blue sea
An insect train work ceaselessly;
Grain by grain, they are building well,
Each one alone in its little cell;

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