In a favourable soil, and in new moist lands, it reaches to the height of twenty feet, while in dry and light soils its height does not exceed six or ten feet. 7. The sugar harvest is a very busy time.

When the canes are fully ripe they are cut off close to the ground, and divided into convenient lengths. They are then tied up in bundles, and conveyed in carts to the sugar mill. Here they are passed between iron rollers until the whole of the juice is squeezed out.

8. The juice must be immediately boiled to prevent it becoming acid. A certain amount of lime, or of lime water, is now added to promote the separation of the crystals of sugar. During the boiling, the impurities in the syrup collect at the top, and are carefully skimmed off.

9. More fuel is added to the fire, and the watery particles of the syrup are evaporated as fast as possible. The syrup now thickens, and is brought by boiling to such a consistency that it granulates on cooling

10. When the sugar is sufficiently cooled in shallow pans it is put into hogsheads. These hogsheads are pierced with small holes at the bottom, and placed upright over a large cistern so as to allow the molasses or treacle (which is a portion of the syrup that will not crystallize) to drain away. The sugar left is the raw or brown sugar, which is often seen in large casks at the grocer's shop.

11. The quantity of sugar obtained from a given measure of sugar cane varies, according to the season,

the period of the year, the soil, and the quality of the canes.

It may be calculated that, taking one state of circumstances with another in these respects, every five gallons of cane juice will yield six pounds

of sugar.

12. Sugar is refined or cleared of its colour and impurities in this country. The raw or brown sugar is transferred from the casks into large circular vessels, in which it is mixed with water, and with a small quantity of lime dissolved in water, so as to make a milky fluid. The mass is then heated by steam, which is forced through small holes in copper pipes laid at the bottom of the vessel. When all is dissolved, the liquor is allowed to run into the filters. These filters are tall vessels six or eight feet high, made of either wood or cast-iron. Inside these vessels are placed about sixty cloth or canvas tubes, and in each of these tubes is placed a bag of cotton cloth. The object of these tubes and bags is to get a large filtering surface; the liquor in passing through them is cleared of most of its impurities, and drops into the cistern below.

13. This liquid has a reddish tinge which is got rid of by passing it through a charcoal filter. The liquor is now ready for the process of evaporation. When this has been sufficiently performed, the syrup is run into moulds made of pottery or iron, and of the conical shape that is seen in the large loaves of sugar in grocers' windows. The sugar is left in these moulds for some hours until it becomes solid, and after a few finishing processes is ready to be wrapped up in paper for sale.

maple tree, a tree, from

syrup, sweet juice. the sap of which sugar Saracens, an Arab tribe. is made.

Columbus, a native of beetroot, the root of a Genoa, who discovered

vegetable, from the juice America.

of which sugar is made. laborious, hard. annually, yearly. granulates, forms little particles, very small grains or small masses. parts.

acid, sour. crystallize, form into | refined, purified.


fa-vour-a-ble squeezed dis-solv-ed

con-ve-ni-ent per-form-ed trans-fer-red im-me-di-ate-ly ob-tain-ed veg-e-ta-ble

sep-ar-a-tion sub-stanc-es cul-ti-va-tion con-sis-ten-cy trop-i-cal man-u-facture suf-fi-cient-ly in-tro-duc-ed o-per-a-tion cal-cu-lat-ed em-ploy-ments con-sid-er-a-ble im-pur-it-ies

Name some vegetable substances that sugar is obtained from. Where is the sugar cane found ?

What people first introduced it into Europe? In what parts is it cultivated ? In what countries was it cultivated in very early times ? When was it introduced into the West Indies? Describe the mode of planting the cane in the West Indies. On what lands does the cane grow to the greatest perfection? When are the canes cut down? Into what lengths are they divided ? Where are they taken to? How is the juice squeezed out? What is first done to the juice? What is put into it? Why? When it is sufficiently boiled, what happens to it? What part of the syrup will not crystallize? Into what is it put when it is cooled? How is



Describe the filters. When it has passed through the filters what colour is the syrup? How is it made clear? What is it run into? What is it called when it leaves the moulds?

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

1. The woman was old, and ragged, and gray,

And bent with the chill of the winter's day;
The street was wet with a recent snow,
And the woman's feet were agèd and slow.
She stood at the crossing, and waited long,
Alone, uncared for, amid the throng

Of human beings who passed her by,

Nor heeded the glance of her anxious eye. 2. Down in the street, with laughter and shout,

Glad in the freedom of "school let out,"
Came the boys, like a flock of sheep,
Hailing the snow piled white and deep.
Past the woman so old and gray
Hastened the children on their

Nor offered a helping hand to her,
So meek, so timid, afraid to stir
Lest the carriage wheels or the horses' feet

Should crowd her down in the slippery street. 3. At last came one of the merry troop

The gayest laddie of all the group;
He paused beside her, and whispered low,
“I'll help you across if you wish to go.”
Her aged hand on his strong, young arm
She placed, and so, without hurt or harm,
He guided the trembling feet along,

Proud that his own were firm and strong. 4. Then back to his gay, young friends he went,

His young heart happy and well content.
“She's somebody's mother, boys, you know,
For all she's aged, and poor, and slow;
And I hope some fellow will lend a hand
To help my mother, you understand,
If ever she's poor, and old, and gray,
When her own dear boy is far away.”
And “somebody's mother” bowed low her head
In her home that night, and the prayer she said

« ElőzőTovább »