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in form not unlike those of the jessamine tree. The flower emits a most agreeable perfume, more pleasant even than the scent of an orange grove.
3. The fruit which succeeds the flower is a red berry resembling a cherry, having a pale insipid
pulp, inclosing two hard oval seeds each about the size of a small bean.
4. One side of the seed is convex, while the other is flat and has a little straight furrow running through its longest dimension. While growing, the flat sides of the seeds are towards each other.
5. The trees begin bearing when they are two years old. The produce of a good tree is from 11 to 2 pounds of berries. The aspect of a coffee plantation during the period of flowering, which does not last longer than one or two days, is very interesting. In one night the blossoms expand themselves so profusely, as to present the same appearance, which has sometimes been witnessed in England, when a casual snow storm in the autumn covers the trees with snow.
6. The tree is a native of Arabia, and is most carefully cultivated there. The coffee tree is raised from seed, which the natives sow in nursery gardens, and plant out when required. They choose for their plantations a moist shady situation on a small eminence, or at the foot of the mountains. They take great care to conduct little rills of water from the high ground in small channels to the roots of the trees.
7. It is very necessary that the trees should be constantly watered, in order to produce and ripen the fruit. In places much exposed to the south, the coffee trees are planted in regular lines, sheltered by a kind of poplar tree, which extends its branches to a great distance every way, and protects them from the intense heat of the sun. The seeds are known to be ripe when the berries assume a dark red colour, and if not then gathered, will drop from the trees.
8. The planters in Arabia do not pluck the fruit but shake the trees, and the ripened fruit drops readily on mats which are spread beneath. The fruit is afterwards exposed to the sun's rays until it is perfectly dry, when the husk is broken with large heavy rollers made of wood or stone.
9. The seeds thus cleared of the husk are dried thoroughly in the sun, that they may not be liable to heat when packed for shipment.
10. The method of gathering coffee employed in the West India plantations differs from that in Arabia. When the berries are sufficiently ripe they are picked by the hand. For this purpose a canvas bag, having an iron ring or hoop at its mouth to keep it always open, is provided. This is hung round a man's neck so as to leave both hands at liberty. When the trees are in full bearing, an industrious man will often pick three bushels in a day.
11. Before coffee is fit for use as food, however, it must be roasted, and this roasting is a process which requires some nicety. If burnt, much of the fine aromatic flavour will be destroyed, and a disagreeable bitter taste substituted.
12. Coffee roasting is now usually performed in a cylindrical vessel, which is continually turned upon its axis over the fire, in order to prevent the too great heating of any one part, and to keep up a continual shifting of the contents.
13. Coffee should not be kept for any length of time after it is roasted, and should never be ground until the moment it is required for use, as much of its fine flavour will be lost.
14. The use of coffee as a beverage dates only from modern times. In 1615, mention is made of its use in a letter sent from Constantinople, and in the year 1652, the first coffee-house was opened in London. Since that period, it has become, next to tea, the favourite beverage of most civilized countries in the world.
15. Coffee is the favourite drink in France, Ger
many, Sweden, and Turkey. In the last-named country its use by all classes of the people is very great. The Turks drink their coffee very hot and strong, and without sugar. evergreen, always green | civilized, refined. like the holly.
shrub, a small bushy tree. trailing, hanging down. period, time. emits, sends out.
expand, to spread out. resembling, like. profusely, abundantly. insipid, without any eminence, rising ground. taste.
necessary, needful. cylindrical, like a drum aromatic, agreeable. or garden roller.
substituted, put in its axis, the rod running place. through the middle.
per-fume beau-ti-ful di-men-sions destroyed pleas-ant ex-ceed-ing ap-pear-ance ri-pen-ed fur-row bril-li-ant wit-ness-ed cul-ti-vat-ed pro-duce jes-sa-mine oc-ca-sion suf-fi-cient-ly chan-nels in-clos-ing shel-ter-ed in-dus-tri-ous in-tense plan-ta-tion ex-pos-ed in-ter-est-ing
What is the coffee tree? How high does it grow? How is the upper part of the tree divided ? Describe its bark. What is the length of the leaves? What colour are they? What colour are the flowers? What flowers grown in this country do they resemble? What sort of scent do the coffee flowers emit? What is the colour of the fruit? What fruit does it resemble? What taste has the pulp? How many seeds are inclosed? What is found on one of the sides of the seeds? When do the trees begin bearing? How much coffee does each tree produce?
How long does the flowering last? What country is the tree a native of? What parts are chosen for the coffee plantations? If the ground is much exposed to the sun, how are the trees sheltered ? How are the seeds known to be ripe? In what other parts of the world is coffee grown? How are they picked in the West India Islands? Before coffee can be used as a beverage what must first be done to the berries? How is the coffee roasted ? In what countries is coffee the favourite drink? When was the use of coffee first mentioned ?
1. A wanderer who had to go a long and dangerous journey over a rugged and rocky mountain, knew not the way. He endeavoured to obtain some information from a traveller who, as he had learnt, had already passed over the same mountain.
2. The traveller pointed out the road to him clearly and distinctly, together with all the by-ways and precipices of which he must beware, and the rocks which he should climb; moreover he gave him a slip of paper, on which all these things were described exactly
3. The wanderer observed all this attentively, and at each turn and by-path he considered carefully the instructions and description of his friend. Vigorously he proceeded; but, the more he advanced, the steeper the rocks appeared, and the path seemed to lose itself in the lonely dreary ravines.
Then his courage failed him; he looked up to