The parts of a simple sentence are termed subject and predicate.

The subject of a sentence denotes that of which something is asserted.

The predicate expresses that which is asserted of the subject.

The subject restricted or qualified by other words is termed the modified subject.

The predicate limited or modified by other words is termed the modified predicate.


The south wind blows softly, is a simple sentence.
Wind is the subject, modified by “the” and “ south."
The south wind is the modified subject.
Blows is the predicate modified by“ softly."
Blows softly is the modified predicate.

A gentle breeze blows from the south.
A gentle breeze is the modified subject.
Blows from the south is the modified predicate.

From the south is an adjunct of the predicate“ blows." NOTE.-An adjunct is two or more words joined to some otherword to modify its meaning. It is generally a preposition with the word following it.

COMPOUND SENTENCES. 1. A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.

2. The simple sentences which compose a compound sentence are called clauses.


The wind subsides and the clouds disperse. The wind subsides, is a simple sentence, or clause.

The clouds disperse, is another simple sentence, or clause. The conjunction and connects them.

Together they make a compound sentence.
Metellus conquered Jugurtha and took his elephants.

What kind of a sentence is this? Why? Point out the simplo Fentences or clauses which compose it. Which is the connecting

word ?

CONNECTIVES.* The clauses of a compound sentence are connected by Conjunctions, Adverbs and Relatives.



Point out the conjunctions in the following 'examples, and show what they connect.

True valor protects the feeble, and humbles the oppres.

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Is this sentence simple or compound ? Of how many clauses is it composed ! What word connects these clauses ?

High sensoned food vitiates the palate, and occasions a disrelish for plain fare.

The desert shall rejoice, and the wilderness shall błossom.

Disappointment sinks the heart; but the renewal of hope gives consolation.

Ilis vices have, weakened his mind, and broken his health.

I know not whether Charles was the author, but I underBtooil it to be him.

In the last sentence, there are three clausos or simple sentences. 1. I know not. 2. Charles was the author. 3. I understood it to be kim. The first two are connected by whether. The 2d and 3d by but. If you would please to employ your thoughts on that *Particular attention should be given to the subject of connectives; a neglect of which makes parsing a mere mechanical exercise.

subject, you would easily conceive our miserable condi tion.

This compound sentence consists of two clauses or simple sen. tences. 1. From if to subjects. 2. From you to condition.

The conjunction if connects them.
If he approve my endeavors, it will be an ample reward

If I had known the distress of any friend, it would havo been my duty to relieve him. I thought that Titus was your friend.

That is the conjunction, and connects the two clausos.
I see that you are sad.
I respect him because he is sincere.


NOTE.-Adverbs which connect clauses are called conjunctive adverbs.

When he is in town, he lives in Soho square. This sentence consists of two clauses. 1. He is in loun. 2. He lives in Soho square. They are connected by the conjunctive adverb when.

Whilst I was lamenting this sudden desolation, the whole scene vanished.

Whilst connects the two clauses.
The rest will I set in order when I come.


He came to the Alps, which separate Italy from Caul This compound sentence is composed of iwo clauscs.

1. He came to the Alps. 2. Separate Maly from Gaul. The relative which connects them, and stands in the place of Alps, to which it refers as its antecedent.

I read the letter which he received.
It is God whom we worship.

I am Miltiades who conquered the Persians.
The city whic: Romulus built is called Rome.


Combinations of words frequently connect sentences such as, in as much as, as well as, in movie, that, with the intent that, &.c., or any expression which ncms merely to show the relation between the parts of the sentence.


TIE NOUN AND PRONOUN. NOTE.-It may be understood that the word noun will be used as including both the noun and the pronoun.


A noun joined to another noun, and denoting the same person or thing, is put in the same case; as, Cicero, the orator.

NOTE.This construction is called apposition.


1. A noun is sometimes in apposition with a clause ; as, The eldest son was always brought up to that employment, a custom which he and my father followed. 2. A clause, or a verb in the Infinitive mode is sometimes in

apposition with a noun preceding it; as, I would only mention at present one article, that of maintenance of the clergy.

3. A noun in apposition is frequently connected to the one which is explained, by the conjunction as ; as, My father intended to devote me as the tylhe of his sons.

NOTE.—The word as, appears to be used frequently in the sense of the Latin preposition pro, instead of, in place of, for, in the capacity of

4. Names or titlcs employed to distinguish individuals of a family or class, are by some parsed as nouns in apposition; as, George Washington, Mr. Thompson, I. West, Col. Hardy ; by some they are called adjectives; by others the general name, with the specific appellation or titles, is called a complex noun.


Benjamin Franklin. Franklin is the general name; Benjamin is the specific ; together they constitute a compler noun.

Mr. William Barcklay,-a complex noun.
Gencral Z. Taylor,-a complex noun.

Mrs. E. Thornton,-a complex noun.

Let other examples of complex nouns be mentioned. 5. A noun in apposition with two or more nouns, is put in the plural.

RULE I. Some passive and intransitive verbs have the same case after as before them when both words refer to the saine person or thing; as, it is he. His name is called John.

Note.-1. This rule is chicfly applicable to the verbs to be, to become, and some other intransitive verbs, and also to soine transitive in the passive form ; such as denote to name, to render, to make, and the like.

2. Adjectives and participles are often joined with such verbs to form the predicate; as, The apple is ripe; the day is duwning.

3. A few transitive verbs in the active form, are followed by nouns in the vojective case of the same signification as the poininative;as, li means nothing ; verb signifies a word.


1. The nominative or objective case is used after Infinitives of participles, according as either case is used before the Infinitive or participle.

NOTE.-To determine what case the noun following the Infini. tive or participle is in, inquire what other word in the sentence means the same person or thing.

I am tired of being an idler. In what case is idler ? Why?

I cannot bear the thought of being an exile from my country. Ex ile is the nominative after being, in the same case with I.

* Several proper nouns which distinguish an individual are always put in apposition; as, Willium Pitt.-G. Brown.

Nouns common or proper of dissimilar import may be parsed as adjectives when they become qualifying or distinguishing words, 28, President Madison, Lake Erie, &c. Sanborn

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