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the civil government. The presentation | a vicar apostolic are necessarily more is generally vested in the crown; but extended than those of ordinary bishops, the appointment must proceed from the and are ampler in proportion to the diffipope.

culty of keeping up a close communicaThe powers of bishops, and the manner tion with Rome. Thus many cases of of exercising their authority, are regu- dispensation in marriage which a contilated by the canon law; their jurisdiction nental bishop must send to the Holy See on every point is clear and definite, and may be provided for by an English or leaves no room for arbitrary enactments American vicar apostolic; and other simior oppressive measures. Yet it is of such lar matters, for which these must consult a character as, generally considered, can it, could at once be granted by the eccleperfectly control the inferior orders of siastical superiors of the Mauritius or of clergy, and secure them to the discharge China. The nomination of vicars aposof their duty. In most Catholic coun tolic is solely with the pope. tries there is a certain degree of civil The inferior clergy, considered in rejurisdiction allowed to the bishops, with | ference to the government of the church, judicial powers, in matters of a mixed consists mainly of the parochial clergy, character; as in cases appertaining to or those who supply their place. In all marriages, where a distinction between countries possessing a hierarchy, the civil and ecclesiastical marriage has not country is divided into parishes, each been drawn by the legislature. Some provided with a parochus or curate, * who offences connected with religion, as blas- corresponds to the rector or vicar of the phemy or domestic immorality, are like- English established church. wise brought under their cognizance. pointment to a parish is vested in the

Where the succession of the Catholic bishop, who has no power to remove hierarchy has been interrupted, as in again at will, or for any cause except a England, or never been established, the canonical offence juridically proved. The bishops who superintend the Catholic right of presentation by lay patrons is, church and represent the papal authority however, in particular instances fully are known by the name of vicars apos- respected. In Italy the parish priests tolic. A vicar apostolic is not necessarily are generally chosen by competition: upon a bishop—an instance of which we had a a vacancy, a day is appointed on which few years ago at Calcutta-where the vicar the testimonials of the different candiapostolic was a simple priest. Generally, dates are compared, and they are ex. however, he receives episcopal consecra- | amined before the bishop in theology, the tion; and, as from local circumstances, it is exposition of scripture, and extemporanot thought expedient that he should bear neous preaching; and whoever is prothe title of the see which he administers, counced, by ballot, superior to the rest, he is appointed with the title of an an is chosen. cient bishopric now in the hands of in Under an apostolic vicariate, the clergy fidels, and chus is called a bishop in par- corresponding to the parochial clergy tibus infidelium, though the last word is generally bear the title of apostolic misoften omitted in ordinary language. A sionaries, and have missions or local disvicar apostolic, being generally situated tricts with variable limits placed under where the provisions of the canon law their care; but are dependent upon the cannot be fully observed, is guided by will of their ecclesiastical superiors. particular instructions, by precedents and Besides the parochial clergy, there is a consuetude, to which all the uniformity considerable body of ecclesiastics, who of discipline through the Catholic church do not enter directly into the governing gives stability and security. Thus the vicars apostolic, who rule over the four The parish priest in Ireland corresponds to episcopal districts of England, have their the cure in France, the curato (or, in the country, code in the admirable constitution of Pope arciprete), of lialy, and the cira of Spain. The Benedict XIV., beginning with the words equivalent to the vicaire of France and the soito

curate in Ireland, as in the church of England, is Apostolicum ministerium. The powers of curato of Italy,

part of the church, although they help to only in presence of the parish priest, this discharge some of its most important | is a matter of discipline not supposed to functions. A great number of secular rest on the revelation of God, but dicclergy are devoted to the conduct of edu- tated by prudence; and consequently a cation, either in universities or semi- degree of toleration is allowed regarding naries; many occupy themselves exclu- the adoption of the resolution in particusively with the pulpit, others with in- lar dioceses. It is only with regard to structing the poor, or attending charitable such decrees, and more specifically the institutions. A certain number also fill one we have mentioned, that the Council prebends, or attend to the daily service of of Trent is said to have been received, or cathedrals, &c.; for in the Catholic church not, in different countries. pluralities, where the cure of souls exists, When a general council cannot be sumare strictly prohibited, and consequently moned, or when it is not deemed necesa distinct body of clergy from those en sary, the general government of the gaged in parochial duties, or holding church is conducted by the pope, whose rectories, &c., is necessary for those duties. decisions in matters of discipline are conBesides this auxiliary force, the regular sidered paramount, though particular sees clergy, or monastic orders, take upon and countries claim certain special privithem many of these functions. The leges and exemptions. In matters of clergy of the Catholic church in the west faith it is admitted that if he issue a deare bound by a vow of celibacy, not for- cree, as it is called, ex cathedrâ, or as mally made, but implied in their ordina- head of the church, and all the bishops tion as sub-deacons. This obligation of accept it, such a definition or decree is celibacy is only reckoned among the dis-binding and final.* ciplinary enactments of the church. The The discipline or reformation of smaller clergy of that portion of the Greek and divisions is performed by provincial or Armenian church which is united in diocesan synods. The first consist of the communion with the see of Rome may bishops of a province under their metrobe married; that is, may receive orders politan; the latter, of the parochial and if married, but are not allowed to marry other clergy under the superintendence after having taken orders. A similar of the bishop. The forms to be observed discipline, if thought expedient by the in such assemblies, the subjects which church, might be introduced into the West. may be discussed, and the extent of juris

The only point concerning the govern- diction which may be assumed, are laid ment of the Catholic church which re down at full in a beautiful work of the mains to be mentioned is the manner in learned Benedict XIV., entitled "De Sywhich it is exercised. The most solemn nodo Diæcesana. The acts and decrees tribunal is a general council, that is, an of many such partial synods have been assembly of all the bishops of the church, published, and are held in high esteem who may attend either in person or by among Catholics ; indeed, they may be deputy, under the presidency of the pope recommended as beautiful specimens of or his legates. When once a decree has deliberative wisdom. Such are the depassed such an assembly, and received crees of the various synods held at Milan the approbation of the Holy See, there is under the virtuous and amiable St. Charles no further appeal. Distinction must be, Borromeo. however, made between doctrinal and dis II. The laws of the Catholic church ciplinary decrees; for example, when in the Council of Trent it was decreed to be * The great difference between the Transalpine the doctrine of the church that marriage and the Cisalpine divines, as they are termed, is s indissoluble, this decree is considered

whether such a decree has its force prior to, or

independent of, the accession of the body of bibinding in the belief and on the conduct, shops to it, or receives its sanction and binding nor can its acceptance be refused by any power from their acceptance. Practically there one without his being considered rebel

is little or no difference between the two opinions; lious to the church. But when it is or

yet this slight variety forms a principal ground

work or what are called the liberties of the Galdered that marriages must be celebrated lican churci

may be divided into two classes; those creed of Pius IV., of which the following which bind the interior, and those which is the substance:regulate outward conduct. This distinc The preamble runs as follows: "I, tion, which corresponds to that above N. N., with a firm faith believe and promade between doctrinal and disciplinary fess all and every one of those things decrees, may appear unusual, as the term which are contained in that creed which laws seems hardly applicable to forms of the holy Roman church maketh use of." thought or belief. Still, viewing the Then follows the Nicene creed. Catholic church under the form of an “I most steadfastly admit and embrace organized religious society, and consider- apostolical and ecclesiastical traditions, ing that it professes to be divinely au- and all other observances and constituthorized to exact interior assent to all that tions of the same church. it teaches, under the penalty of being “ I also admit the holy scriptures, acseparated from its communion, we think cording to that sense which our holy we can well classify under the word law mother the church has held and does those principles and doctrines which it hold, to which it belongs to judge of the commands and expects all its members to true sense and interpretation of the scripprofess.

tures : neither will I ever take and interCatholics often complain that doctrines pret them otherwise than according to are laid to their charge which they do the unanimous consent of the fathers. not hold, and in their various publications “ I also profess that there are truly and protest against their belief being assumed properly seven sacraments of the new upon any except authoritative documents; law, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and as such works are perfectly accessible, and necessary for the salvation of manthe complaint is reasonable and just. There kind, though not all for every one, to are several works in which an accurate wit: baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, account is given of what Catholics are penance, * extreme unction, holy orders, t expected to believe, and which carerully and matrimony: and that they confer distinguish between those points on which grace; and that of these, baptism, conlatitude of opinion is allowed, and such | firmation, and orders cannot be reiterated as have been fully and decisively decreed without sacrilege. I also receive and by the supreme authority of the church. admit the received and approved ceremoSuch are Veron's • Regula Fidei,' or nies of the Catholic Church, used in the Rule of Faith, a work lately translated solemn administration of the aforesaid into English, and Halden's Analysis sacraments. Fidei.' But there are documents of more “I embrace and receive all and every authority than these; for example, the one of the things which have been defined “Declaration’ set forth by the vicars apos- and declared in the holy Council of tolic or bishops in England, in 1823, often Trent, concerning original sin and jusrepublished; and still more the « Cate- tification. chismus ad Parochos,'or' Catechism of the “I profess likewise that in the mass Council of Trent, translated into Eng. there is offered to God a true, proper, lish not many years ago, and published and propitiatory sacrifice for the living in Dublin. A perusal of such works as these will satisfy those who are desirous * Under penance is included confession; as of full and accurate information regard the Catholic nasrament of penance consists of ing Catholic tencts, of their real nature,

three parts: contrition or sorrow, confession, and

satisfaction. and show that the popular expositions of + The clerical orders of the Catholic church their substance and character are gene are divided into two classes, sacred and minor rally incorrect.

orders. The first consists of subdeacons, deaThe formulary of faith, which persons the daily recitation of the Preriary, or collection

cons, and priests, who are bound to celibacy and becoming members of the Catholic church of palms and prayers, occupying a considerable are expected to recite, and which is sworn time. The minor orders are four in number, and to upon taking any degree, or being ap- ceremony in which the hair is shurri, initiatory to,

are preceded by the tonsure, an ecclesiastical pointed to a chair in a university, is the the ecclesiastical state.

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CATHOLIC CHURCH. [ 461 ] CATHOLIC CHURCH. and the dead : and that in the most holy Of the disciplanary or governing code sacrament of the eucharist there is truly, we have already spoken, when we obreally, and substantially, the body and served that it consisted of the Canon Law, blood, together with the soul and divinity which, unlike the doctrinal and moral of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that there code, may vary with time, place, and acis made a change of the whole substance cidental circumstances. of the bread into the body, and of the III. The last head was the essential whole substance of the wine into the or constitutive principle of the Catholic blood, which change the Catholic church church. By this we mean that principle calls transubstantiation. I also confess that which gives it individuality, distinguishes under either kind alone Christ is received it from other religions, pervades all its whole and entire, and a true sacrament. institutions, and gives the answer to every

"I firmly hold that there is a purgatory, query regarding the peculiar constitution, and that the souls therein detained are outward and inward, of this church. helped by the suffrages of the faithful. Now, the fundamental position, the

“Likewise, that the saints reigning constitutive principle of the Catholic with Christ are to be honoured and invo- church, is the doctrine and belief that cated, and that they offer up prayers to God has promised, and consequently beGod for us; and that their relics are to stows upon it, a constant and perpetual be had in veneration.

protection, to the extent of guaranteeing “I most firmly assert that the images it from destruction, from error, or fatal of Christ, of the mother of God, and also corruption. This principle once admitted, of other saints, ought to be had and re- every thing else follows. 1. The infaltained, and that due honour and venera- libility of the church in its decisions on tion are to be given them.

matters concerning faith. 2. The obli“I also affirm that the power of indul-gation of submitting to all these decigences was left by Christ in the church, sions, independently of men's own private and that the use of them is most whole- judgments or opinions. 3. The authority some to Christian people.

of tradition, or the unalterable character “I acknowledge the holy Catholic of all the doctrines committed to the Apostolic Roman church for the mother church; and hence the persuasion that and mistress of all churches : and I pro- those of its dogmas, which to others mise true obedience to the bishop of appear strange and unscriptural, have Rome, successor to St. Peter, prince of been in reality handed down, uncorthe apostles and vicar of Jesus Christ.” rupted, since the time of the apostles,

Then follow clauses condemnatory of who received them from Christ's teachall contrary doctrines, and expressive of ing. 4. The necessity of religious unity, adhesion to all the definitions of the by perfect uniformity of belief: and Council of Trent.

thence as a corollary the sinfulness of It is obvious that this form of confes- wilful separation or schism, and culpable sion was framed in accordance to the errors or heresy. 5. Government by decrees of that council, and consequently authority, since they who are aided and has chiefly in view the opinions of those supported by such a promise must neceswho followed the Reformation.

sarily be considered appointed to direct Such is the doctrinal code of the Catho- others, and are held as the representatives lic church; of its moral doctrines we and vicegerents of Christ in the church. need not say anything, because no autho- 6. The papal supremacy, whether consirised document could be well referred to dered as a necessary provision for the that embodies them all. There are many preservation of this essential unity, or as decrees of popes condemnatory of im- the principal depository of the divine moral opinions or propositions, but no promises. 7. In fine, the authority of positive decrees. The moral law, as councils, the right to enact canons and taught in the Catholic church, is mainly ceremonies, the duty of repressing all the same as other denominations of Chris- attempts to broach new opinions; in a tians profess to follow.

word, all that system of rule and autho.

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ritative teaching which must strike every | the United States, in California, and in one as the leading feature in the consti- South America, have embraced the same tution of the Catholic church.

faith. In Asia there is hardly any nation The differences, therefore, between this professing Christianity which does not and other religions, however complicated contain large communities of Catholic and numerous they may at first sight Christians. Thus in Syria the entire appear, are thus narrowed to one ques- nation or tribe of the Maronites, dispersed tion; for particular doctrines must share over Mount Libanus, are subjects of the the fate of the dogmas above cited, as Ronan see, governed by a patriarch and forming the constitutive principle of the bishops appointed by it. There are also Catholic religion. This religion claims other Syriac Christians under other for itself a complete consistency from its bishops, united to the same see, who ar first principle to its last consequence, and dispersed all over Palestine and Syria. to its least institution, and finds fault with At Constantinople there is a Catholic others, as though they preserved forms, | Armenian patriarch who governs the dignities, and doctrines which must have united Armenians as they are called, sprung from a principle by them rejected, large communities of whom also exist in but which are useless and mistaken the Armenia proper. The Abbé Dubois, in moment they are disjoined from it. Be his examination before a committee of this as it may, the constitution of the the House of Commons in 1832, stated Catholic church should seem to possess, the number of Catholics in the Indian what is essential to every moral organized peninsula at 600,000, including Ceylon, body, a principle of vitality which ac and this number was perhaps rather counts for all its actions, and determines underrated than otherwise. There are at at once the direction and the intensity of present an archbishop who is vicar apoall its functions.

stolic of Bengal, bishops who are vicars We conclude this account of the Ca- apostolic of Madras, Bombay, and Ceylon tholic church with a sketch of the extent respectively, and they are assisted by coof its dominions, by enumerating the adjutor bishops. [Bishopric.] A new countries which profess its doctrines, one has been added for Ceylon. We have or which contain considerable commu not the means of ascertaining the number nities under its obedience. In Europe, of Catholics in China, but in the province Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, of Su-Chuen alone they were returned, the Austrian empire, including Hun- 22nd September, 1824, at 47,487 ( Annales gary, Bavaria, Poland, and the Rhenish de la Propag. de la Foi, No. XI. p. 257); provinces of Prussia, which formerly and an official report published at Rome belonged to the ecclesiastical electorates, in the same year gives those in the proprofess the Catholic religion as that of vinces of Fo-kien and Kiansi at 40,000. the state, or, according to the expression There are seven other provinces containof the French charte, that of the majority ing a considerab.e number of Catholics, of the people. In America, all the coun- of which we have no return. In the tries which once formed part of the united empire of Tonkin and CochinSpanish dominions, both in the southern China the Catholics of one district were and northern portion of the continent, estimated at 200,000 (Ibid, No. X. p. and which are now independent states, 194), and, till the late persecution, there profess exclusively the same religion. was a college with 200 students, and conThe empire of Brazil is also Catholic. vents containing 700 religious. Another Lower Canada and all those islands in distriet gave a return, in 1826, of 2955 the West Indies which belong to Spain or infants baptized, which would give an France, including the Republic of Haiti, estimate 88,000 adult Christians. A profess the Catholic faith; and there are third gave a return of 170,000. M. Dualso considerable Catholic communities bois estimates the number of mative in the United States of North America, Catholics in the Philippine Islands at especially in Maryland and Louisiana. 2,000,000. In Africa, the islands of Many Indian tribes, in the Canadas, in Mauritius and Bourbon are Catholic, and

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