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Letters of the Alphabet arranged ac-
The Quality, Vice or Virtue of the Letter Friendship Love Love Enmity Enmity
(Buruj) Ram Twins Crab Sun Ram
(Kawakib) Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus
Moslem lands and there are hundreds of books on the subject. The most celebrated is that called “Shems al Ma’arif al Kubra " of Ahmed ibn Ali Al Buni, who died 622 A. H. Among the subjects treated in this book of magical practices are the following: to drive away demons, to strengthen memory, to increase property, to gain love, to cure inflammation, to hear the speech of Jinn, to increase crops. He gives us the names on the seal of Solomon, the names on the rod of Moses, the names which Jesus used to perform his miracles, etc., etc., etc. There is not a Moslem village from Tangier to Teheran where this encyclopedia of magic can not be found in daily use by some Sheikh.
Among the most common amulets in use in India are magic and the latter drunk; or they are worn upon the person; or them are based upon the well-known magic square of AlGhazali.
8 11 14 1 14 4 1 15 13 2 7 12 7 9 12 6 3 16 9 6 11 5 8 10 10 5 4 15 2 16 13 3 15 1 4 14 1 14 15 4 10 8 5 11 8 11 10 5 6 12 9 7 12 7 6 9 3 13 16 2 13 2 3 16
7 13 19 25 1 20 21 2 8 14 3 9 15 16 22 11 17 23 4 10 24 5 6 12 18
12 “Qanoon-e-Islam,” by Herklots, London.
TALISMANS AND MAGICAL SQUARES FROM EGYPT The two smaller ones are made of sandstone; the one to the left is of bronze and has the usual introductory formula together with the names of angels and Jinn.
These magic squares are written on a white porcelain plate, or on paper, the inscription is then washed off with water and the latter drank; or they are worn upon the person; or they are burnt, and the individual is smoked with their fumes; or they are kept suspended in the air; or having been made into charms by being enveloped in cotton, they are dipped in odoriferous oils, and burnt in a lamp; or they are engraved on rings and worn on the fingers. “Some persons write the taweez or ism on bhoojputur, or have it engraved on a thin plate of silver, gold, etc., roll it up or fold and form it into a taweez or puleeta, cover it with wax, and sew some superior kind of cloth or brocade over it; or they insert it into a square hollow case or tube of gold or silver, seal it hermetically, and wear it suspended to the neck, or tie it to their upper arms or loins, or stick it into their turbans or tie it up in a corner of their handkerchiefs and carry it about their persons. People very generally have empty taweezes made, and suspend them to the necks of their children, together with madulec * in the center, as well as some baghnuk (tiger's nails) set in silver, etc., and when they obtain a taweez from any renowned mushaekh or mulla, or can procure a little of any sacred relic offered on shrines, such as flowers, sundul, etc., they put these into them.” It is by such magic that people find out the hour and day of the month most propitious for undertaking a journey, for wearing new clothes, for trimming the beard, etc., for bathing, shaving, etc. The character of these superstitions may be judged from a single example which Herklots gives: “If a person have an enemy on whom he has not the power to be revenged, though he is constantly distressed and harassed by him the following is what people, in the habit of doing these things, perform, either for themselves or for others, for a reward. However, it is not every one that succeeds 18 I. e., an amulet with the name of Ali.