God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man — He is the sole channel of communication with the other world. With Him as our living, loving Saviour and Friend we have no fear of “the arrow that flieth by day nor of the pestilence that walketh in darkness.”

In order to guide the student for further study in regard to Animism and Islam we give the keys that will unlock the subject; for if Moslems know that we have some idea of their superstition they will tell us more. The subject needs thorough investigation, especially in Egypt. The best book on Animism is by A. C. Kruijt, a Dutch missionary in the East Indies, and his division of the subject is very suggestive. I here translate the table of contents of his book. Every subject leads out into a wide field of thought and investigation.

I. ANIMISM. (1) The Personal soul-stuff of Man found especially in the Head, the Intestines, the Blood, Placenta, Hair, Teeth, Saliva, Sweat, Tears, Urine, etc. (2) Means by which this soul-stuff is appropriated, e.g., Spitting, Blowing, Blood-wiping, and Touch. (3) The Personal Soul in Man: The Shadow, the Dream, The Escape of the Soul through Sneezing, Yawning, etc. The Were Wolf and the Witch. (4) The Soul-stuff of Animals. (5) Soul-stuff of Plants, Sacred Plants. (6) Soul-stuff of Inanimate Objects — Metals, Iron, Gold, etc. (7) The Transmigration of the Soul, especially in Animals — The Firefly, the Butterfly, the Bird, the Mouse, the Snake, the Lizard. (8) Special honor paid to Animals, Fetishes, Stones and Amulets. II. SPIRITISM, or THE DOCTRINE OF THE SOUL. (1) The Living Man — in regard to his Soul, its Nature. (2) The Life of the Soul after Death — It remains in the Grave or in the House — Its Journey to Soul Land. (3) The Worship of Souls — Either through a medium or without a medium — In Special Places or in Special Objects. The Priesthood that gives communication with the souls of the Departed. III. DEMONOLOGY. (1) Introduction on the Creator and Creation. (2) The Spiritual Part of Creation. (3) Animals as Messengers of the Gods.

(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)


Honor of man — Saint-worship.


The Home of the Gods.
Agricultural Gods and Sea Gods.
Tree Spirits and other Demons.
How demons show themselves and how one drives them


ONE has only to read popular expositions of the Koran texts that refer to angels, jinn, iblis (the devil), kismet (fate), and the many traditions regarding the creation of the soul and its transmigration to realize that the world of Moslem thought and that of Animism are not distinct. Not only in popular Islam, its magic (high and low), its amulets, charms, talismans, magic squares, sacred trees, etc., but in the sacred literature of Islam we find pagan beliefs and practices perpetuated. The shortest of all monotheistic creeds, the Kalima, has itself become a species of magic and at least in three of the six articles of the expanded statement of orthodox belief we find animistic teaching and interpretation. “I believe in Allah and His angels, and His books, and His prophets, and the Resurrection and the Predestination of good and evil.” The doctrine of God includes the magical use of His names and attributes. The doctrine of angels includes not only demonology but jinn fear and worship as real as in Paganism. The belief in revelation has in popular Islam almost degenerated into bibliomancy and bibliolatry. Do the fellahin of Egypt not take their oath on Al Bokhari? The prophets, especially Solomon and Mohammed, had intercourse with demons and jinn. According to the Koran and Tradition man is created with a doubleego or two souls (the Qarina) just as in the pagan mythologies. The beliefs regarding the relation of the soul to the body after death, and the doctrine of metempsychosis resemble the beliefs of Animism. Their belief in how the spirit leaves the body; the benefit of speedy burial; the questioning by the two angels of the tomb; the visiting of the graves and the presentation of offerings of food and drink on the graves: all this is mixed up with pagan practices which find their parallel in Animism. Finally, the whole eschatology of Islam is a strange mixture of Judaism, Christianity and Paganism. Some of these practices based on the creed we will recur to later; here we limit our discussion to the use of the Koran, the creed formula and the rosary in ways that are condemned by the creed itself. “There is no god but Allah’” — yet His Book, His names, His very attributes are used as amulets against demon and jinn or as fetish receive the reverence due to Himself alone. Every missionary knows that the Koran itself has the power of a fetish in popular Islam. Not only is the book eternal in its origin and use for mystic purposes, but only those who are ritually pure may touch it. Certain chapters are of special value against evil spirits. It is related in Tradition, e.g. that “whosoever reads the 105th chapter and the 94th chapter of the Koran at morning prayers will never suffer pain in his teeth " ' This is one reason why these two chapters, i.e. of the “Elephant’ and the one entitled “Have we not expanded,” are almost universally used for the early prayers. At funerals they always read the chapter “Y.S.”; and then, in fear of jinn and spirits, the chapter of the Jinn. One has only to read this last chapter with the commentaries on it to see how large a place the doctrine occupies in popular Islam. The cure for headache is said to be the 13th verse of the chapter called “Al-Ana’am’’ or the “Cattle,” which reads: “His is whatsoever dwells in the night or in the day: He both hears and knows.” Against robbers at night a verse of the chapter called “Repentance’ is read, etc., etc.” No religion has ever made so much of its sacred book in a magic way as Islam. Not only do we find bibliolatry, i.e. the worship of the Book, but also bibliomancy, i.e. the use of the Koran for magical or superstitious purposes. This is perhaps based on Judaism. We find that Jews used the Torah for protection purposes and in a magical way as do the Mohammedans. When a person was dangerously ill the Pentateuch was opened, and the name which first met the eye was added to the patient's name, in order to avert the evil destiny.”

1. Cf. Even Al Ghazali who is quoted in book of “Wird,” Mujarabat of Ahmed Dirbi, p. 80.

Just as Moslems to-day use special names of God and special chapters as “cure-alls” so did the Jews of the Dispersion. The following verses in the original Hebrew were used on amulets:

Genesis I: 1 To make oneself invisible (S. Z. 32a). I: 1–5 (The last letters only.) To confuse a person's mind (M. W. 25); as preservation against pollution (S. Z. 11b); and for other purposes (“Cat. Anglo-Jew. Hist. Exh.” No. 1874; Schwab). XXI: 1 To lighten child-birth (M. W. 59). XXIV: 2 On using a divining rod (M. V. 80). XXV: 14 Against the crying of children (M. W. 64). XXXII: 31 Against danger on a journey (M. V. 34). XLIX: 18 To shorten one's way on a journey (M. W. 23); in the lying-in room (M. W. 80). Eacodus XI: 7 For protection against a fierce dog. (For greater security, the traveler

2 “The Jewish Encyclopedia,” Vol. III, pp. 202-203.

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