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testimony to the doctrine of a vicarious atonement and the remission of sin through the shedding of blood. Were St. Paul present at an 'Aqiqa ceremony or at 'Arafah on the great day of the feast, would he not preach to the assembled multitudes on the “remission of sins through His blood"? (Eph. 1:7 — Col. 1: 14 — Rom. W: 11 — Rom. III: 25.)

Surely there is pathos as well as interest in the fact that the great Moslem world of childhood from its infancy has been consecrated to the religion of Islam by the 'Aqiqa sacrifice.

BOOKS REFERRED TO IN THIS CHAPTER

“Al Bukhari” (Bulak, 1314). Vol. VII, p. 83. “Commentary on al Bukhari,” Fath-ul-Bari, by El 'Ainy. Vol. IX, p. 710. “Commentary on al Bukhari,” by al Askalany. Vol. IX, p. 464. “Commentary on al Muwatta,” by al Zarkani. Vol. III, p. 23. “Badayat ul Majtahid,” by El Kurtubi bin Rushd el Hafidh. Vol. I, . 375. gg Mino ut Talibin,” by al Nawawi, p. 127. “Mishkat ul Masabih (Delhi). P. 363. “Ihya ulum id Din,” by al Ghazali. Vol. II, p. 35. Commentary on the same, by al Murtadhi. Vol. V, p. 390. “The Encyclopaedia of Islam ” (Leyden). “The Jewish Encyclopaedia” (Arts. Hair; First-born; Child; Sacrifice). W. Robertson Smith, “Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia.” (Cambridge, 1885). “The Religion of the Semites” (New York, 1889). C. Snouck Hurgronje, “Mekka" (The Hague, 1888). C. M. Doughty, “Arabia Deserta’’ (Cambridge, 1888). G. A. Herklots, “Customs of the Moosulmans of India’’ (London, 1832). Major W. Fitz G. Bourne, “Hindustani Mussulmans and Mussulmans of the Eastern Punjab” (Calcutta, 1914). N. Adriani and Alb. C. Kruijt, “De Barre's-sprekende Toradja’s ” (Batavia, 1912). Budgett Meakin, “The Moors” (London, 1902). Dr. Pennell, “Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontier” (London, 1909). Marshall Broomhall, “Islam in China’’ (London, 1910).

CHAPTER WI
THE FAMILIAR SPIRIT OR QARINA

AMong all the superstitions in Islam there is none more curious in its origin and character than the belief in the Qarin or Qarina. It probably goes back to the ancient religion of Egypt, or to the animistic beliefs common in Arabia as well as in Egypt, at the time of Mohammed. By Qarin or Qarina the Moslem understands the double of the individual, his companion, his mate, his familiar demon. In the case of males a female mate, and in the case of females a male. This double is generally understood to be a devil, shaitan or jinn, born at the time of the individual’s birth and his constant companion throughout life. The Qarina is, therefore, of the progeny of Satan.

The conception of the soul and the belief in a double among Moslems closely resembles the idea of the Malays and other animists. “The Malay conception of the human soul,” we read, “is that of a species of thumbling, a thin unsubstantial human image, or mannikin, which is temporarily absent from the body in sleep, trance, disease, and permanently absent after death. This mannikin, which is usually invisible but is supposed to be about as big as the thumb, corresponds exactly in shape, proportion and even complexion, to its embodiment or casing, i.e., the body in which it has its residence. It is of a vapory, shadowy, or filmy essence, though not so impalpable, but that it may cause displacement on entering a physical object. . . . The soul appears to men (both waking and sleeping) as a phantom separate from the body,

of which it bears the likeness, manifests physical power, and walks, sits, and sleeps.” What this concept has become in Islam we shall see in a moment. That the shadow is a second soul, or a semblance of the soul, is also an animistic idea. The same thing appears in Islam, for the shadow of a dog defiles the one who prays as much as does the dog himself.” The Javanese believe that black chickens and black cats do not cast a shadow because they come from the underworld. When one reads of this one cannot help comparing with it the Moslem belief in the Qarina. There are many passages in the Koran in which this doctrine is plainly taught, and by reading the commentaries on these texts, a world of superstition, groveling, coarse, and, to the last degree, incredible, is opened to the reader. The Koran passages read as follows: * (Chapter of the Cave, verse 48), “And when we said to the angels, “Adore Adam,” they adored him, save only Iblis, who was of the jinn, who revolted from the bidding of his Lord. “What! will ye then take him and his seed as patrons, rather than me, when they are foes of yours? bad for the wrong-doers is the exchangel’” The reference here is to the words, “Satan and his seed.” (See especially the Commentary of Fahr al Din al Razi, margin, Vol. VI, p. 75.) In speaking of the resurrection when the trumpet is blown and the day of judgment comes, we read: (Chapter Kaf, verses 20–30), “And every soul shall come — with it a driver and a witness! “Thou wert heedless of this, and we withdrew thy veil from thee, and to-day is thine eyesight keen l’ And his mate (qarina) shall say, ‘This is what is ready for me (to attest).’ ‘Throw into hell every stubborn 1 “Malay Magic,” by W. W. Skeat, London, 1900. 2 I have not found this stated in the Traditions, but it is a wellmisbeliever! — who forbids good, a transgressor, a doubter | who sets other gods with God — and throw him, ye twain, into fierce torment l’ His mate shall say, “Our Lord! I seduced him not, but he was in a remote error.’ He shall say, ‘Wrangle not before me; for I sent the threat to you before. The sentence is not changed with me, nor am I unjust to my servants.” On the day we will say to hell, “Art thou full?” and it will say, ‘Are there any more?’” And again we read: (Chapter of Women, verses 41, 42), “And those who expend their wealth in alms for appearance sake before men, and who believe not in God nor in the last day; — but whosoever has Satan for his mate, (qarina) an evil mate has he.” Again: (Chapter of the Ranged, verses 47–54), “. . . and with them damsels, restraining their looks, large eyed; as though they were a sheltered egg; and some shall come forward to ask others; and a speaker amongst them shall say, ‘Verily, I had a mate (qarina) who used to say, “Art thou verily of those who credit? What! when we are dead, and have become earth and bones, shall we be surely judged!”.' He will say, ‘Are ye looking down?” and he shall look down and see him in the midst of hell. He shall say, “By God, thou didst nearly ruin me!’” (Chapter “Detailed,” verse 24), “We will allot to them mates, for they have made seemly to them what was before them and what was behind them; and due against them was the sentence on the nations who passed away before them; both of jinns and of mankind; verily, they were the losers l’’ (Chapter of Gilding, verses 35–37), “And whosoever turns from the reminder of the Merciful One, we will chain to him a devil, who shall be his mate; and verily, these shall turn them from the path while they reckon they are guided; until when he comes to us he shall say, ‘O, would that between me and thee there were the distance of the two orients, for an evil mate (art thou) l’ But it shall not avail you on that day, since ye were unjust; verily, in the torment shall ye share!” To speak of only one of these passages, what Baidhawi says in regard to the Chapter of the Ranged, verse 49, leaves no doubt that the qarina, which has been the mate of the believer all through life, is cast into hell on the day of judgment, and that this evil spirit, which is born with every man, is determined to ruin him, but that the favor of God saves the believer, and that one of the special mercies of heaven for the believer is to behold his companion devil forever in torment. Before we deal further with the comment as given on these verses, and the teaching in Moslem books, we consider the possible origin of this belief in teaching found in the “Book of the Dead” of ancient Egypt. “In addition to the Natural-body and Spirit-body,” writes E. A. Wallis Budge (“Book of the Dead,” Vol. I, p. 73), “man also had an abstract individuality or personality endowed with all his characteristic attributes. This abstract personality had an absolutely independent existence. It could move freely from place to place, separating itself from, or uniting itself to, the body at will, and also enjoying life with the gods in heaven. This was the ka, a word which at times conveys the meaning of its Coptic equivalent ko, and of ÉvêoMov, image, genius, double, character, disposition, and mental attributes. What the ka really was has not yet been decided, and Egyptologists have not yet come to an agreement in their views on the subject. Mr. Griffith thinks (Hieroglyphs, p. 15), that ‘it was from one point of view regarded as the source of muscular movement and power, as opposed to ba, the will or soul which set it in motion.’” In September, 1878, M. Maspero explained to the Members of the Congress of Lyons the views which he held concerning this word, and which he had for the

known belief in Egypt and in Arabia. * Palmer's translation is used throughout.

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