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which was amongst the few valuable monstrance against the language held relics that he selected to accompany by Austria during the late Neapolitan his captivity. It must have been a commotion. This is all the intellistriking and a melancholy sight gence from abroad, of the slightest enough to see him stretched upon that interest, since our last publication. bed, the natural parent of such as- During the last month, our dosociations, and surrounded, on a tro- mestic intelligence is almost necessapical rock, by the few faithful friends rily confined to the Coronation; an who preferred his prison to all the event which has excited, not merely splendours which inight have illu- in the metropolis, but throughout mined their apostacy at the court of the whole kingdom, so general and his successors. Their grief is de- so paramount an interest. We have scribed as having been most poig- made every possible exertion to pronant and overwhelming; and, in- cure for our readers the most satisdeed, it seemed to have been among factory account of this splendid specthe most remarkable peculiarities of tacle, and to our communication on this wonderful man, to have borne a this subject we must, at present, fascination about him, the influence content ourselves with referring them, of which was never forgotten by fully confident that it will satisfy those who once experienced it. On their expectations. The remaining the return of the exiles to Europe, events which have occupied the pubwe hope to be able to present our lic attention are few, and not very readers with details, not perhaps interesting. The Queen having laid within the reach of every journalist. before the Privy Council a claim reThis death may, ere long, cause an lating to her right to a participation important crisis in the European go- in the great national ceremony, Lord vernments - it has certainly trans- Londonderry informed the House of ferred from the hands of Eugland, to Commons that she should be heard those of Austria, a very powerful before the proper tribunal, by her atpolitical engine.-The remaining fo- torney and solicitor general. Acreign intelligence of this month is cordingly, on Tuesday the 6th inst. very circumscribed. The Greeks and the Privy Council assembled at Turks maintain their former hosti- Whitehall for the purpose of hearlity; and the accounts of their vari- ing those learned gentlemen on that ous successes and vicissitudes are so subject. The arguments on each uncertain, and so contradictory, that side occupied some days; after a due it is impossible to say to what credit consideration of which, the Council they are entitled. It is, however, informed the King that they had quite clear, that the insurgents still come to an unanimous opinion against maintain themselves in successful the claim; which was communicated insurrection ; and so far there cer- in due form to Her Majesty. Her tainly is some evidence that these Majesty's course, upon the receipt of triumphs are not altogether un- this communication, our readers will founded, or they could not continue learn from our description of the ceto array themselves so long as they remony. Mr. Hume attempted to have done against the weight and move an Address upon this subject authority of a regular government. in the House of Commons, which, It is said that two great powers, however, was frustrated by the apEngland and Russia, have offered pearance of the Gentleman Usher of their umpirage in this interesting the Black Rod summoning the memcontest. The sincerity of the latter bers to hear the parliament prorogued power, however, may well be doubt- by commission." His Majesty, it is ed, where Turkey is concerned. The generally understood, will proceed to king of Portugal has returned to his Ireland in the course of a few days; European dominions, where he has he intends to embark at Brighton, been received as quietly as if he had but some of his suite, anxious to merely left them on a tour of plea- avoid that circuitous route, will prosure ; in the mean time, his son, the ceed by Holyhead. In the mean prince and heir apparent, remains in time the Citizens of Dublin are busy the Brazils as regent. The Spanish in preparing for his suitable recepAmbassador, at Vienna, has present- tion. A very singular phenomenon ed to that court a very strong re- has lately occupied the attention of the sister kingdom. An immense tract assistance on the subject, he proof bog was observed in motion in the fessed his willingness to do so. After vicinity of Tullamore, in the King's some irrelevant observations, not of County, at about eight o'clock in the the most amicable nature, amongst evening, about a fortnight ago, and themselves, they again retired, and it has since continued in slow but after remaining impannelled for the steady progress. To account for it entire night, they were discharged baffles the ingenuity of the most sci- next morning by consent of the entific naturalists; and amongst the parties, their unanimous agreement people generally it has excited an having been ascertained to be imuniversal alarm. The country, for possible. This is a sad debût for miles around, was suddenly agitated this celebrated association. A few by a violent convulsion, and the days before parliament was proroshocks were accompanied by a noise gued, Mr. Whitbread moved for an resembling thunder. The earth was address to his Majesty, praying that rent asunder at a place called Kil- he would be graciously pleased to maladay; when a torrent, composed order a noli prosequi to be entered of boggy compound, issued forth, and upon all prosecutions commenced by covered the country, to the extent this association, which was, howof three hundred acres. It forced ever, negatived without a division. through every impediment, carrying If all juries act as that impannelled in its progress every implement of upon this occasion did, it was very husbandry; which, at the time, hap- right in the honourable House not pened to occupy the ground over to put his Majesty to such unneceswhich it spread. The quantity of sary trouble. bog, at present in motion, is esti- We congratulate the country on mated at above two thousand acres ! the prospect of a speedy alleviation
Westminster Hall has been opened of that distress which has arisen for public inspection by Lord Gwy- from a deficiency of the circulating dyr, whose attention to every wish medium.
The Manchester papers expressed by the public, during the state, that “arrangements are making late ceremony, could not be ex- by the two principal Banks there, ceeded. There has also been a very viz. those of Messrs. Jones, Loyd, grand Concert at Westmister Ab- and Co. and Messrs. Heywood, hey, in honour of the Coronation, Brothers, and Co. for the early issue and in furtherance of the funds of the of local notes. The quantity of Cash Westminster Hospital. It was most weekly required for the great manunumerously attended, and was patro- facturing population of that town, nized by the heads of erery political and the surrounding distriet, is so party. This is as it should be, and, immense, as to put it out of the as we hope it always will be in Eng- power of the bankers to make arland, where the interests of charity rangements for providing it in metalare concerned.
lic currency. It is satisfactory to reThe first indictment preferred hyflect, in this introduction of loc the Constitutional Society against notes into Manchester, that the Mary Anne Carlisle, for a libel, came issue of them is in the hands of on for trial at Guildhall, on the 24th such well known capitalists, as to instant, before Mr. Justice Best, and justify, in the public mind, the a special jury. The judge informed most perfect assurance of their stathem that, in his opinion, the lihelbility. This example will be folwas one of a most grossly seditious lowed, we have no doubt, by every character, upon which they retired. Bank of undoubted responsibility in In the course of about half an hour, the kingdom: prices will then again the learned justice desired an officer rise, and distress will speedily disapto intinzate to the jury, that he was pear. By the increase of our circuin attendance upon thein. They ac- lating medium, the public burthens cordingly returned, when his Lord will be deprived of that unjust and ship told them, that he had sent for unnecessary overweight, which they them, in consequence of a note which have acquired from the improvement he had received from their foreman, in the value of money by the restricstating that they were not likely to tions of the Bank issues; and an acrce. If he could give them any equal, uniform, and general retrench
ment, will, from this source, be vira time, we have the pleasure to add, tually and irresistibly effected in all that the arrangements abovemention, the departments of state. We shall ed are in such a state of forwardprobably offer in a future number a ness, as to leave little doubt that, more explicit declaration of the in the course of another fortnight, the grounds on which we have founded issue of local notes at Manchester these observations. In the mean will be in full operation.
AGRICULTURAL REPORT. The transactions, which concern the landed curred at various periods of history, and interest and agricultural science, have been they indulge the hope that the tenantry will so various and so important during the last still be able to surmount their difficulties. few weeks, that our article must necessarily From this they take occasion to notice the be this month considerably extended. diminution of rents which has already taken
The Report of the Select Committee, to place, and the causes of the rise between whom the several petitions complaining of 1793 and 1814. Improvements form one the distressed state of the agriculture of the part, and the state of the currency another, United Kingdom were referred, has been of these causes; and to the latter they published. This document declares, that mainly attribute the depression of price. no present relief can be afforded by legisla. They hazard an opinion that the ultimate tion, while the hopes it holds out of any effects upon rent will be below the anticifuture provisions to alleviate the distress pated results, and will not indeed exceed are so very slender, and so conditionally - that proportion of the increase which, put, that it must be now quite clear that during the war, grew out of the depreciated agriculture will be left to find its own level value of the currency." whatever be the consequences. The Re- This section concludes with two inferport, however, is decidedly ministerial, be- ences very momentous to the farmer :- 1st. ing drawn up, not as usual by the Chairman That the present depression is the conseof the Committee, (Mr. Gooch,) but by Mr. quence of the abundance of the two last Hụskisson, a member of administration. harvests :-and, 2dly, that the previous This paper must also be considered rather importations were necessary to supply the as a general exposition of those elements wants of the kingdom. Our readers will and principles of political economy by which scarcely fail to apprehend how much hinges the Government regulates its present policy upon these points, since the one declares the in regard to agriculture, commerce, and country can grow more than enough in manufactures, than as a more direct reply plentiful years for its own consumption, to the allegations of the petitioners. It while, in years a little below the average, is, indeed, apologetical, as well as decla- recourse must be had to a foreign supply ; ratory.
and thus a competition, in the one instance, The Report is divided into seven sections. must be established between English The first simply states the provisions of the growers to dispose of a redundant crop ; law at present in force with respect to the and, in the other, between the English and trade in corn, viz.—that free importation the foreign proprietor. This state of things, and exportation are at all times permitted, it will also be clearly understood, can leave but that corn can only be sold in this coun- no alternative between a duty which would try when the prices are above a certain ave. compensate the farmer by a high price for rage. The second sets out with the im- his present high es:penses, and a general fall portant concession, that the complaints of of prices to the level of the Continent. To the petitioners are founded in fact, in so far this part of the Report, therefore, we would as they represent that, at the present price of particularly direct the general attention. corn, the returns to the occupier of an arable The third secti on opens with referring to farm, allowing for the interest of his invest- former periods of agricultural distress; which, ment, are by no means adequate to the having been sur mounted, afford, by their charges and outgoings; of which a consi- similarity, the hope of surmounting the derable portion can be paid only out of the present difficult ies. It also alludes to the capitals, and not from the profits, of the suffering state of other kingdoms. It aftenantry.” The Committee go on to ex- firms, that an average crop is now equal to press their doubts (founded on official re- the national consumption--but couples this turns) as to the contraction of the demand remark with :1 conjecture originally made for various articles of consumption : they by Mr. Burke, that " years of plenty or infer that the profits of farming during the of scarcity hippen in pretty large cycles, war were somewhat above the ordinary pro- and irregulaz.y.” From this the conclusion fits of capital in other branches, and that is, that the condition of the grower of corn, they are now considerably below that rate ; in a country, where the remunerating prices but similar revulsions, they say, have oc- shall habitu ally exceed the prices of the rest of the world, must be hazardous and of our national wealth, depend on the conembarrassing. The Committee then go on tinuance of that union by which our agri. to show that what is called a remunerating cultural prosperity is so clearly connected price must Auctuate with circumstances; with the preservation of our manufacturing and, with a view to this particular object, and commercial greatness ;” and hence they recommend an earnest consideration they suggest the wisdom of guarding of the effects of the present corn laws. The against dependence on a foreign supply, as English farmer, they assert, has for the well as against such a price of subsistence two last harvests enjoyed a monopoly; and as may expatriate capital and skill. For, protection cannot be carried further than say they, with the irresistible force of truth, monopoly. They then state that the pre- the difference in the cost of subsistence sent glut must continue until years of scar- operates in the same manner as taxation city shall arise and carry off the redundance to diminish the profits of capital in this -and, from all these circumstances com- country, and there can be as little doubt, bined, they infer the general probability of that though capital may migrate, the ungreat fluctuations in price.
occupied population will remain, and reThe fourth section discusses the effects of main to be maintained by the landed inthe present enactments regarding such fluc- terest, upon whose resources, in proportion tuations, which it is very wisely pronounced to diminished demand, this additional burto be the interest of grower and consumer then would principally fall." alike to avoid. The Committee admit that The report then proceeds to examine the it is the necessary tendency of the law now effect of taxation upon agriculture, and the in force to produce them. They examine inference drawn is as follows :-" whilst the operation of former laws, and submit to they are desirous of correcting the misParliament the propriety of considering taken opinion, that the depression under whether a trade in corn, free at all times, which our agriculture now labours is either but subject to a duty, would not be prefer- exclusively or principally to be attributed able. Such a change, however, they own to taxation, they cannot disguise from can be attempted only at a future period, themselves, that the weight of the public and under a favourable situation of things. burthens of the country, their nominal In such an event they recommend lowering amount remaining the same, must be more the rate at which corn is admissible, and to severely felt, in proportion as the many inguard the consumer by enacting, that when comes derived from trading, farming, and ever the price shall have reached a certain manufacturing industry are diminished." high rate, the duty shall cease altogether. The sixth section rejects positively the
In the last paragraph, the Committee em- proposition of some of the petitions, which brace a variety of points ;—the free com- prays a duty of forty shillings a quarter on petition of soils in the home market—the wheat, as utterly subversive of all foreign advantage of continuing a forced cultivation commerce, which they say would be an. of inferior lands--the effects of public bur. nihilated by the recognition of such a prin. dens, &c.; and they infer, “ that, within ciple, and they show the misconception the limits of the existing competition at with regard to the protection afforded to home, the exertions of industry and the manufacture, on which this principle is investment of capital in agriculture ought adopted by the Petitioners. They also to be protected against any revulsion, but controvert the manifest errors upon which that the protection ought to go no further.” the opposition to the warehousing clause in At the close the Committee recommend, the present act is founded, and show the that “ every opportunity should be watched, advantages the country derives from being and every practical measure adopted, for made a deposit for foreign corn. reducing the amount of the public expen- The last division commences with la. diture.'
menting, that the Committee is unable to The fifth division opens with so prudent recommend any immediate means of allea reservation between free trade on the one viation; and after recapitulating the causes side, and vested interest on the other, that of distress, and then declaring that these it is scarcely possible to gather any prac. are in their own nature irremediable by tical conclusion from its recommendations. legislative enactments, the Committee cite The Committee refer whatever comes after the reduction of the interest of money to a due estimation, with a relation to these from accumulating capital, and the dimigrand considerations.
nution of public burdens, by the operation Recurring to former periods, they, how. of the sinking fund, as the likeliest means ever, conclude, that no provisions to force of encouraging and augmenting national or encourage agriculture ever equalled the prosperity, and out of which alone the relief stimulus supplied by the increase of de- can come. mand that arose during the last reign. Such is the abstract of this elaborate Looking to the general progress of affairs composition, of which we can only say, during that period, they state that, “ the that we regret its materials should afford so present solidity, and future improvement, many points for controversy, and so many,
too, where the delusion is palpable. Of ment of the moral and intellectual consuch a kind is the reference to the sinking dition of the rural population. Upon the fund at the end, of which all that the public present occasion, when the complaints of knows is, that the expence of its machinery universal distress have received, as it were, exceeds its actual production, and that the reply of the parliament; and when the defalcation of revenue in the present that reply is generally considered so unsayear leaves no hope of its effectual opere tisfactory ; it could scarcely be possible for ation.
80 large an assembly of the landed interest To this report two answers have been to avoid the discussion of that answer, its given, the one in the commentary con. grounds, and its reasoning; and this would tained in a very able letter from Mr. Cure naturally lead to the introduction of gene wen to those who entrusted him with pe- ral politics. Mr. Coke, therefore, took off titions, the other in the report of the Com- the restriction he has hitherto rigidly immittee of the Agricultural Associations at posed; and announced that, in consideration Henderson's. Mr. Curwen, after a very of the urgency and importance of the preclear exposition of the errors in the argu- sent crisis, it was not his intention to rements adduced in Mr. Huskisson's report, press the consideration of these great quesconcludes that, “ if protection to all agri- tions. There was, consequently, much of cultural produce is not to be granted, the a political character mixed with the cuscountry must then direct its views to the tomary inquiries concerning agricultural only alternative, which is, to cut down processes and improvements. our establishments, contract the scale of The first day's exhibition commenced expence at home and abroad, demolish all with an inspection of the various processes useless places, reduce the amount of salary of flax manufacture, established with a paid from the crown to the lowest officer view to the employment of the parish poor of the state, and call upon the funded pro- (particularly the women and the children) prietor for his contribution of a fair
at Holkham. The instruments and the tion to the exigences of the state. artizans were placed upon the lawn; and
The report of the Committee at Hender. the several operations were performed, with son's recites at large their proceedings to great facility, under the able direction of excite the attention of the legislature-the Mr. Herod, of Creake: the prize stalappointment of the Committee, and the lions were also shown: and the party procommunications that took place. They ceeded over the different farms, discoursing there declare that, “ the substance, the on the appearance of the crops, the dairies, very essence of their prayers are entirely flocks, and lots of Devon cattle, &c. as they overlooked," in Mr. Huskisson's report, and they very sarcastically allude to the After dinner, the Agricultural Report was opinions of its framer-they prophecy much adverted to by the several speakers, “ direful effects” in two years from its and its principles were universally repropublication, and appeal from the Select bated. The breed of Devon cattle was Committee to the parliament to render them much extolled, and a good deal of interjustice, by protection equal to that which esting discussion respecting Merino sheep manufactures now receive. It concludes took place. By Mr. Coke, it was asserted, by a vote of thanks to those members of that their wool could not be sold, and their the Committee who favoured their claim, flesh could not be eaten. Mr. Bennett, on and in particular to Mr. Curwen and Mr. the contrary, said, that three Merinos John Foster.
could be fed where two Southdown sheep
could be maintained ; and that the fleeces The Holkham sheepshearing was not of the former would sell for thrice the aonly more numerously attended than ever, mount of the fleeces of the latter. The but there was a far greater assemblage of Merino, he contended, was, therefore, much eminent political characters, and of distin, the most profitable. At the sheep house, in guished persons from distant counties : his the evening, some Southdowns were offered, Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex ; his but no sales effected. Grace the Duke of Bedford ; the Earls of The business of the second morning, Albemarle, Arundel, and Nugent; the Mar. commenced, as that of the preceding, by quis of Tavistock ; Viscount Althorpe ; viewing the manufacture of flax; after Lords Erskine and Crewe ; Lord W. Rus- which, the prize sheep were examined; and sell; Sir Francis Burdett; Sir John Sin. it was admitted, that no former show had clair ; Sir J. Johnson ; Mr. Hume ; Mr. equalled that of the present year. The Bennett; Mr. Western; Mr. Honeywood; company rode over the park farm, and viDr. Rigby; Mr. Owen ; and other charac- sited the village, where every one was exters of political or agricultural celebrity, ceedingly interested by the comfort, neatbeing present.
ness, and order that reigned. A new school The grand object of this meeting is the had been erected since the last year, thus promotion of agriculture ; and with this proving Mr. Coke's attention to the moral subject is intimately blended the advance. and intellectual advancement of his depend