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An ipfurre&ion of the Peruvians. Its rise,

So many adventurers had flocked to Peru from every Spanish colony in America, and all with such high expectations of accumulating independent fortunes at once, that, to men poffefsed with notions so extravagant , any mention of acquiring wealth gradually, and by schemes of patient, industry, would have been not only a disappointment, but an insult. In order to find occupation for men who could not with safety be allowed to remain inactive ; Pizarro encouraged some of the most distinguished officers who had lately joined him , to invade different provinces of the empire, which the Spaniards had not hitherto visited, Several large bodies were formed for this purpose; and about the time that Almagro set out for Chili, they marched into remote districts of the coun: try. No sooner did Manco Capac, the Inca, observe the inconsiderate security of the Spaniards in thus dispersing their troops, and that only a handful of soldiers remained in Cuzco , under Juan and Gonzalez Pizarro, than he thought that the happy period was at length come for vindicating his own rights, avenging the wrongs of his country, and extirpating its oppressors. Though strictly watched by the Spaniards, who allowed him to refide in the palace of his ancestors at Cuzco, he found means of communicating his scheme to the persons who were to be entrusted with the execution of it. Among

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people accustomed to revere their sovereign as a divinity, every hint of his will carries the authority of a command; and they themselves were now convinced, by the daily increase in the number of their invaders, that the fond hopes which they had long entertained of their voluntary departure were altogether vain. All perceived that a vigorous effort of the whole pation was requisite to expel them, and the preparations for it were carried on with the secrecy and filence peculiar to Americans,

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and progress.

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After fome unsuccessful attempts of the Inca to make his escape, Ferdinand Pizarro happening to arrive at that time (1536.) in Cuzco, he obtained permission from him to attend a great festival which was to be celebrated a few leagues from the capital.

Under pretext of that folemnity, the great men of the empire were assembled. As soon as the Inca joined them, the standard of war was erected; and in a short time all the fighting men , from the confines of Quito to the frontier of Chili, were in arms. Many Spaniards living securely on the settlements allotted them, were malsacred. Several detachments, as they marched carelesly through a country which seemed to be tamely submissive to their dominion , were cut off to a man. An army amounting (if we may believe the Spanish writers) to two hundred

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thousand men, attacked Cuzco , which the three brothers endeavoured to defend with only one hundred and feventy Spaniards. Another formidable body invested Lima, and kept the governor closely shut up. There was no longer any communication between the two cities; the numerous forces of the Peruvians spreading over the country intercepted every messenger; and as the parties in Cuzco and Lima were equally unacquainted with the fate of their countrymen, each boded the worst concerning the other, and imagined that they themselves were only persons who had survived the general extinction of the Spanish name in Peru. d): .

Siege of Cuzco.

It was at Cuzco , where the Inca command. ed in person, that the Peruvians made their chief effort. During nine months they carried on the fiege with incessant ardour, and in various forms; and though they displayed not the same undaunted ferocity as the Mexican warriors, they conducted some of their operations in a manner which discovered greater fagacity, and a genius more susceptible of improvement in the military art. They not only observed the advantages which the Spaniards

d) Vega , p. 11. lib. ii. c. 28. Zarate, lib, iji. c. 3. Cieca de

Leon, c. 82. Gomara Hift. c. 135. Herrera, dec. 5. 'lib, viii. c. 5.

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derived from their discipline and their weapons, but they endeavoured to imitate the former, and turn the latter against them. They armed a considerable body of their bravest warriors with the swords, the spears, and bucklers, which they had taken from the Spanish fol. diers whom they had cut off in different parts of the country. These they endeayoured to marshal in that regular compact order, to which experience had taught them that the Spaniards were indebted for their irrefiftible force in action, Some appeared in the field with Spanish muskets, and had acquired skill and refolu. tion enough to use them. A few of the boldeft , among whom was the Inca himself, were mounted on the horses which they had taken, and advanced brisklý to the charge like Spanish cavaliers, with their lances in the rest. It was more by their numbers, however, than by those imperfect eslays to imitate European arts and employ European arms, that the Peru. vians annoyed the Spaniards. e) In spite of the valour, heightened by despair, with which the three brothers defended Cuzco, Manco Capac recovered poffeffion of one half of his capital, and before the Spaniards could drive him out of it, they loft Juan Pizarro, the best beloved of all the brothers, together with some other persons of note. Worn out with the


fatigue of inceffant duty, diftreffed with want of provisions, and despairing of being able any longer to resist an enemy whose numbers daily increased, the foldiers became impatient to adandon Cuzco,in hopes either of joining their countrymen, if any of them yet survived, or of forcing their way to the sea, and finding fome means of efcaping from a country which had been fo fatal to the Spanish name, f) While they were brooding over those desponding thoughts which their officers laboured in vain to dispel, Almagro appeared suddenly in the neighbourhood of Cuzco.

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Arrival of Almagro, and motives of his condu&.


The accounts transmitted to Almagro concerning the general insurrection of the Peruvians, were such as would have induced him, without hesitation to relinquish "the conquest of Chili, and hasten to the aid of his country

But in this resolution he was confirmed by a motive lefs generous, but more interesting. By the same messenger who brought him intelligence of the Inca's revolt, he received the royal patent creating him governor of Chili, and defining the limits of his jurisdiction. Upot considering the tenor of it, he deemed it mani. fest beyond contradiction, that Cazco lay within the boundaries of his government, and he

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f) Herrera, dec. 5. lib. viii, c. 4.

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