ambition had induced them not only to dir. semble their sentiments,but even to act in corcert while in pursuit of wealth and power, no sooner did they obtain possession of these, than the same paflions which had formed this temporary union, gave rise to jealousy and discord. To each of them was attached a small band of interested dependents, who, with the malicious art peculiar to such men, heightened their fufpicions, and magnified every appearance of offence, But with all those seeds of enmity in their minds, and thus affiduously cherisned, each was fo thoroughly acquainted with the abilities and courage of his rival, that they equally dreaded the consequences of an open rupture. The fortunate arrival of Pizarro at Cuzco, and the address mingled with firmness which he manifested in his expoftulations with Almagro and his partizans, averted that evil for the present. A new reconciliation took place; the chief article of which was, that Almagro should attempt the conquest of Chili; and if he did not find in that province an establishment adequate to his merit and expectations, Pizarro, by way of indemnification, should yield up to him a part of Peru. This new agreement, though confirmed (June 12, 1534.) with the same sacred folemnities as their first contract, was observed with as little fidelity, c)

c) Zarate, lib. ii. C. 13. Vega, p. II. lib. ii. c. 19. Benzo.

lib. iii. c. 6. Herrera, dec. 5. lib. vii. c. 8.

Regulations of Pizarro.

Soon after he concluded this important transaction , Pizarro marched back to the countries on the sea-coast, and as he now enjoyed an interval of tranquillity, undisturbed by any eneiny, either Spanish or Indian , he applied himself with that persevering ardour, which distinguifned his character, to introduce a form of regular government into the extensive provinces subject to his authority. Though ill qualified by his education to enter into any disquisition concerning the principles of civil policy, and little accuftomed by his former habits of life to attend to its arrangements, his natural fagacity supplied the want both of science and experience. He distributed the country into various districts; he appointed proper magistrates to preside in each; and established regulations concerning the administration of justice, the collection of the royal revenue, the working of the mines, and the treatment of the Indians, extremely fimple, but well calculated to promote the publick prosperity. But though, for the present, be adapted his plan to the infant state of his colony, his afpiring mind looked forward to its future grandeur. He considered himself as laying the foundation of a great empire, and deliberata ed long, and with much folicitude, in what place he should fix the seat of government.

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Foundation of Lima. . · Cuzco, the imperial city of the Incas, was Situated in a corner of the empire, above four hundred miles from the sea, and much farther from Quito, a province of whose value he had formed an high idea. No other settlement of the Peruvians was so confiderable as to merit the name of a town, or to allure the Spaniards to fix their residence in it. But, in marching through the country, Pizarro had been struck with the beauty and fertility of the valley of Rimac, one of the most extensive and best cultivated in Peru. There on the banks of a small river, of the same name with the vale which it waters and enriches, at the distance of six miles from Callao, the most commodious harbour in the pacifick Ocean, he founded a city which he destined to be the capital of his government. He gave it the name of Ciudad de los Reyes, either from the circumstance of having laid the first stone', at that feason (January 18. 1535.) when the church celebrates the festival of the Three Kings, or, as is more probable, in honour of Juana and Chaples, the sovereigns of Caftile. This name it still retains among the the Spaniards, in all legal and formal deeds, but it is better known to foreigners by that of Lima, a corruption of the ancient appellation of the valley in which it is fituated. Under his inspection, the buildings advanced with such rapidity, that it foon aflumed the form of a city, which, by a ma

gnificent palace that he erected for himself, and by the stately houses built by several of his officers, gave, even in its infancy, some indication of its subsequent grandeur. d)

Almagro invades Chili. ; In consequence of what had been agreed with Pizarro, Almagro began his march towards Chili; and as he pofseffed in an eminent degree the virtues most admired by soldiers, boundless liberality and fearless courage, his standard was followed by five hundred and seventy men, the greatest body of Europeans that had hitherto been assembled in Peru. From impatience to finish the expedition, or from that contempt of hardship and danger acquired by all the Spaniards who had served long in America , Almagro , instead of advancing along the level country on the coast , chose to march across the mountains by a route that was shorter indeed, but almost impracticable. In this attempt his troops were expofed to every calamity which men can suffer , from fatigue, from famine , and from the rigour of the climate in those elevated regions of the torrid zone, where the degree of cold is hardly inferior to what is felt within the polar circle. Many of them perished, and the survivors, when they descended into the fertile plains of Chili, had new difficulties to encounter. They found there a race of men very different from the people of Peru, intrepid , bardy , independent, and in their bodily constitution, as well as vigour of spirit, nearly resembling the warlike tribes in North America. Though filled with wonder at the first appear. ance of the Spaniards, and still more aftonished at the operations of their cavalry and the effects of their fire arms, the Chilese foon recovered so far from their suprize, as not only to defend themselves with obstinacy, but to attack their new enemies with more determined fierceness than any American nation had hitherto discovered. The Spaniards, however, continued to penetrate into the country, and col. lected some considerable quantities of gold ; but were so far from thinking of making any settlement amidst such formidable neighbours , that, in spite of all the experience and valour of their leader, the final. issue of the expedition still remained extremely dubious, when they were recalled from it by an unexpected revolution in Peru. e) The causes of this important event I shall endeavour to trace to their fource.

d) Herrera, dec. 5. lib. vi. c. 12. lib. vii. C. 13. Calancha

Cronica , lib. i. C. 37. Barnuevo, Lima fundata , ii. 294. ; e) Zarate , lib. iii. c. 1. Gomara Hift. c. 131. Vega, p. II.

lib, ii, c. 20. Ovalle {Hift. de Chile, lib. iv. c. 15. &c. Herrera's dec. 5. lib. vi. c. 9. lib. x. c. I, &c.

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