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Ibara 7000 citizens, and ten villages. The district of Havalla between 18 and 20,000 people. The district of Tacunna between 10 and 12,000. The district of Ambato between 8 and 10,000, besides 16 depending villages. The city of Riobamba between 16 and 20,000 inhabitants, and 9 depending villages. The district of Chimbo between 6 and 8000. The city of Guyaquil from 16 to 20,000 inhabit. ants, and 14 depending villages. The diftrict of Atuasi between 5 and 6000, and 4 depende ing villages. The city of Cuenza between 25 and 30,000 inhabitants, and 9 populous dependa ing villages. The town of Laxa from 8 to 10,000 inhabitants, and 14 depending villages. This degree of population, though slender, if we consider the vast extent of the country, is far beyond what is commonly supposed. I have omitted to mention, in its proper place, that Quito is the only province in Spanish America that can be denominated a manufacturing country; hats, cotton ftuffs, and coarse woollen cloths, are made there in such quantities, as to be sufficient not only for the consumption of the province, but to furnish a considerable article for exportation into other parts of Spanish America. ' I know not whether the upcommon industry of this province should be considered as the cause or the effect of its populousness. But among the oftentatious inhabitants of the New World, the passion for every thing that
dufiry of this province should be confidered
comes from Europe is fo violent, that I am informed the manufactures of Quito are so much undervalued, as to be on the decline.
NOTE XLVI. p. 274.
1: ancco citizens, and ten villages 1:
These are established at the following places,
St. Domingo in the island of Hispaniola, Mexico in New Spain, Lima in Peru, Panama in Tierra Firmè, Santiago in Guatimala, Guadalaxara in New Galicia, Santa Fé in the New Kingdom of Granada.
La Plata in the country Los Charcas, St. Francisco de Quito, St. Jago de Chili, Buenos-Ayres. To each of these are subjected several large provinces, and some so far removed from the cities where the courts are fixed, that they can derive little benefit from their jurisdiction. The Spanish writers commonly reckon up twelve courts of Audience, but they include that of Manila in the Philippine Islands.
NOTE XLVII. p. 282.
Hats, cotton ffuffs, and coarse woollen clock are made there in fuch quantities, as to be tuff cient not only for the consumption of the prouince, but to furnith a confiderable article ter exportation into other parts of Spanish Am. rica. I know not rhether the uncommon it.
On account of the distance of Peru and Chili from Spain, and the difficulty of carrying commodities of such bulk as wine and oil across the isthmus, of Panama, the Spaniards in those provinces have been permitted to plant vines and olives. But they are strictly prohibited from exporting wine or oil to Panama, Guati
35 the cause or the effect of its populousreli But among the oftentatious inhabitants of the New World, the passion for every thing that
mala, or any province in such a situation as to receive it from Spain. Recop. lib. i. tit. xyii. 1. 15-18.
NOTE XLVIII. p. 284.
· This computation was made by Benzoni, A. D. 1550, fifty - eight years after the discoyery of America. Hift. Novi Orbis , lib, iii. c. 21. But as Benzoni wrote with the spirit of a malcontent, difposed to detract from the Spaniards in every particular, it is probable that his calculation is too low,
NOTE XLIX. p. 285.
My information , with respect to the division and transmission of property in the Spanish colonies, is imperfect. The Spanish authors do not explain this fully, and have not perhaps attended fufficiently to the effects of their own institutions and laws. Solorzano de jure Ind. vol. ii. lib. ii. 1.16. explains in some measure the introduction of the tenure of Mayorafgo, and mentions some of its effects. Villa Segnor takes notice of a singular. consequence of it. He observes, that in some of the : best situations in the city of Mexico, a good deal of the ground is unoccupied, or covered only with the ruins of the houses once erected upon it, and adds, that as this ground is beld
fullcently to the effects of their own institutions
by right of Mayorafgo, and cannot be alienated, that defolation and those ruins become perpe. tual. Teatr. Amer. vol. i. p: 34.
NOTE L. P; 288.
NOTE XLIIII. p. 284.
T is cooptation was made by Benssi A D 1559, 11 y-eight years after the dir Hy vi drid. HA Novi Orbis, hb, ca. Es as Benzoni wrote with the fait of a maior ateat, disposed to detra& front S, 21:2"cs in every particular , it is provide that his ca.cuation is too low.
NOTE XLIX. p. 285
There is no law that excludes Creoles from offices' either civil or ecclefiaftick. On the çontrary, there are many Cedulas which recommend the conferring places of trust indiscrimi. nately on the natives of Spain and America, Betancurt y Figueroa Derecho, &c. p. 5, 6. But notwithstanding such repeated recommendations, preferment in almost every different line is conferred on native Spaniards. A remarkable proof of this is produced by the author last quoted. From the discovery of America to the year 1637, three hundred and fixty-nine bifhops, or archbishops, have been appointed to the different dioceses in that country, and of all that number only twelve were Creoles, p.40. This predilection for Europeans feems still to continue. By a royal mandate, issued in 1776 , the chapter of the Cathedral of Mexico is directed to nominate European ecclefiafticks of known merit and abilities, th at the King may appoint them to supply vacant benefices. MS. penes me,
My information, with respect to the diviba and tratímilion of property in the Spanila és loo.es, is im perfect. The Spanish authors do px explain this fully, and have not perhaps attende
and law's, Solorzano de jure Ind. vol. ii
, ülkiá explains in some measure the introduction of the tepure of Mayorasgo, and mentions fome of its effects. Villa Segnor takes notice of a fingular consequence of it. He observes, that in some of the beft fituations in the city of Mexico, a good deal of the ground is unoccupied, or covered only with the ruins of the houses once erected upon it, and adds, that as this ground is held
NOTE LI. p. 294.
Moderate as this tribute may appear, such is the extreme poverty of the Indians in many provinces of America, that the exacting of it is intolerably 'oppressive. Pegna Itiner, par Parochos de Indios, p. 192.
NOTE LII. p. 295.
In New Spain, on account of the extraordinary merit and services of the first conquea rors, as well as the small revenue arising from the country previous to the discovery of the mines of Sacatecas, the encomiendas were granted for three, and sometimes for four lives. Recopil. lib. vi. tit. ii. c. 14, &c.
NOTE LIII. p. 296.
D. Ant. Ulloa contends, that working in mines is not noxious, and as a proof of this informs us, that many Mestizos and Indians who do not belong to any Repartimiento, voluntarily hire themselves as miners; and several of the Indians, when the legal term of their service expires, continue to work in the mines of choice. Entreten, p. 265. But his opinion concerning the wholesomeness of this occupation is contrary to the experience of all ages; and wherever men are allured by high wages, they will engage in any species of labour, howe guing or pernicious it may