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&c. Henry Hawks, an English merchar, who resided five years in New Spain, previo to the year 1572, gives the same faroeraki account of the popish clergy. Hakluyt
, i 466. By a law of Charles V. not only his shops, but other ecclefiafticks, are to inform and admonish the civil magiftrates, if any Indian is deprived of his juft liberty auf rights. Recopilac. lib. vi. tit. vi. ley 14; thus were constituted legal protectors of the lodians. Some of the Spanish ecclefiafticks sa fused to grant absolution to such of their countrmen as polleffed Encomiendas, and confidered the Indians as slaves, or employed them a working their mines. Gonz, Davil
. Teatro Ecclel. i. 157
ledge is still in its infancy, and few men have leisure to engage in researches merely speculative, little attention has been paid to this curious inquiry. But in the year 1741, Philip V. enjoined the viceroys and governors of the several provinces in America, to make an actual survey of the people under their jurisdiction, and to transmit a report concerning their number and occupations. In consequence of this order, the Conde de Fuen Clara, viceroy of New Spain, appointed D. Jof. Antonio de Villa Segnor y Sanchez, to execute that commiffion in New Spain. From the reports of the magiftrates in the several districts, as well as from his own observations, and long acquaintance with most of the provinces, Villa Segnor published the result of his inquiries in his Teatro Americano. His report, however, is imperfect, Of the nine dioceses, into which the Mexican empire has been divided, he has published an aceount of five only, viz. the archbishoprick of Mexico, the bishopricks of Pueebla de los Angeles, Mechoacan, Oaxaca, and Nova Galicia. The bil opricks of Yucatan, Verapaz, Chiapa, and Guatimala, are entirely omitted, though the two latter comprehend countries, in which the Indian race is more numerous than in any part of New Spain. In his survey of the extensive diocese of Nova Galicia, the situation of the different Indian villages is described, but he specifies the num
NOTE XLIV. p. 267.
According to Gage, Chiapa dos Indos cortains 4000 families, and he mentions it only as one of the largelt Indian towns in America, p. 104.
NOTE XLV. p. 267.
It is very difficult to obtain an accurate account of the state of population in those kinga doms of Europe where the police is molt perfeet, and where science has made the greated progress, In Spanish America, where know.
ROBERTSON Vol. III.
ber of people only in a small part of it. The Indians of thật vast province, in which the Spanish dominion is imperfectly established, are not registered with the same accuracy as in other parts of New Spain. According to Villa Segnor, the actual ftate of population in the. five dioceses above mentioned is of Spaniards, negroes, mulattoes, and mestizos, in the dioceses of
105,202 Los Angeles
7,296 Nova Galicia
At the rate of five to a family, the total number is
At the rate of five to a family, the total number is 1,471,955. We may rely with greater certainty on this computation of the num
ber of people only in a small part of it. The: cals of trat valt province, in which the pisi duminion is imperfectly established, 2 tot restered with the same accuracy as i other parts of New Spain. According to 15 Serior, the actual fate of population is de fse dioceles abore mentioned is of Spanitas Lommes, malattoes, and mestizos, in te diceies of
Mexico Los Angeles Mechoacan Oaxaca Nova Galicia
At the rate of five to a family, the ta number is 1,471,955. We may rely with grezi
ber of Indians, as it is taken from the Matricula, or register, according to which the tribute paid by them is collected. As four dioceses of nine are totally omitted, and in that of Nova Galicia the numbers are imperfectly recorded, we may conclude, that the number of Indians in the Mexican empire exceeds two millions.
The account of the number of Spaniards &c. seems not to be equally complete. Of many places, Villa Segnor observes in general terms, that several Spaniards, negroes, and people of a mixed race, reside there, without specifying their number. If there fore, we make allowance for these, and for all who refide in the four dioceses omitted, the number of Spaniards and of those of a mixed race, may probably amount to a million and a half. In some places, Villa Segnor distinguishes between Spaniards and the three inferior races of negros, mulattoes, and meftizos, and marks their number separately. But he generally blends, them together. But from the proportion obfervable in those places, where the number of each is marked, as well as from the account of the state of population in New Spain by other authors, it is manifest that the number of negroes and persons of a mixed race far exceeds that of Spaniards. Perhaps the latter ought not to be reckoned above 500,000 to a million of the former,
E & 2
At the rate of five to a family, the total nuc.
Indian families in the diocese
er certainty on this computation of the sun
Defective as this account may be, I have not been able to procure such intelligence concerning the number of people in Peru, aś might enable me to form any conjecture equally fatisfying with respect to the degree of its po. pulation. I have been informed, that in the year 1761, the protector of the Indians in the viceroyalty of Peru compated that 612,780 paid tribute to the king. As all females , and persons under age , are exempted from this tax in Peru, the total number of Indians ought, by that account, to be 2,449,120. MS. penes me.
I shall mention another mode, by which one may compute, or at least form a guess, concerning the state of population in New Spain and Peru. According to an account which I have reason to consider as accurate, the number of copies of the bull of Cruzada, exported to Peru on each new publication, is 1,171,953 ; to New Spain 2,649,326. I am informed, that but few Indians purchase bulls, and that they are fold chiefly to the Spanish inhabitants, and those of mixed race, so that the number of Spaniards, and people of a mixed race, will amount by this mode of computation to at least three millions.
. The number of inhabitants in many of the towns in Spanish America, may give us some idea of the extent of population, and correct the inaccurate, but popular notion entertained in Great Britain, concerning the weak and desolate state of their colonies. The city of
Mexico contains at least 150,000 people, Puebla de los Angeles contains above 60,000 Spaniards, and people of a mixed race, Villa Segnor, p. 247.
Guadalaxara contains above -30,000, exclusive of Indians. Id. ii. 206. Lima contains 54,000, D. Cofme Bueno Descr. de Peru. 1764. Carthagena contains 25,000. Potofi contains 25,000. Bueno, 1767. Popayan contains above 20,000.
Ulloa, i. 287. Towns of a second class are still more numerous. The cities in the most thriving settlements of other European nations in America cannot be compared with these.
Such are the detached accounts of the number of people in several towns, which I found scattered in authors whom I thought worthy of credit. But I have obtained an enumeration of the inhabitants of the towns in the province of Quito, on the accuracy of which I can rely; and I communicate it to the Publick, both to gratify curiosity, and to rectify the mistaken notion which I have mentioned, St. Francisco de Quito contains between 50 and 00,000 people of all the different races. Befides the city; there are in the Corregimiento 29 curas orl parishes established in the princi.' pal villages, each of which has smaller hamlets depending upon it. The inhabitants of these are mostly Indians and Mestizos. St. Juan de Pafto has between 6 and 8000 inhabitants, befides 27 dependent villages, St. Miguel de
and Peru. According to an account which
and people of a mixed race, will amount by thi
towns in Spanish America, may give us her idea of the extent of population, and corret
the inaccurate, but popular notion entertainel
Defeâive as this account may be, I hy Dot been able to procure fuch intelligence or cerning the number of people in Peru, as mit erable ire to form any conjecture equally tisfyirs with respect to the degree of is pulation. I have been informed, that in 1 year 1761, the protector of the Indians i the viceroyalty of Peru computed that biayt paid tribute to the king. As all females
, B perons under age , are exempted from é tax in Pera, the total number of Indians eagle by that account, to be 2,449,120. MS, penese
I shall mention another mode, by one may compute, or at least form a gues concerning the state of population in New Sure
have realon to confider as accurate, of copies of the bull of Cruzada, esportes? Peru on each new publication, is 1,171,95 to New Spain 2,649,326. I am informed, et but few Indians purchase bulls, and that there foid chiefly to the Spanish inhabitants
, and thens of mixed race, fo that the number of Spaniapk
mode of computation to at leaft three millions
The number of inhabitants in many of the
in Great Britain, concerning the weak 3 desolate state of their colonies. The city