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an intelligent person, who having been long settled on the Mosquito shore, has been engaged in the logwood trade, I find that ingenious author has been well informed. The logwood, cut near the town of St. Francis of Campeachy, is of much better quality than that on the other side of Yucatan , and the English trade in the Bay of Honduras is almost at an end.

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P. Torribio de Benevente, or Motolinea, has enumerated ten causes of the rapid depopulation of Mexico, to which he gives the name of the Ten Plagues. Many of these are not peculiar to that province. 1. The introduction of the small-pox. This disease was firft brought into New Spain in the year 1520 by a negro slave who attented Narvaez. Tor. ribio affirms, that one half of the people in the provinces, visited with this distemper, died. To this mortality, occafioned by the small-pox, Torquemada adds the destructive effects of two contagious diftempers which raged in the years 1545 and 1576. In the former 800,000; in the latter, above two millions perished , accord. ing to an exact account taken by order of the viceroys. Mon. Ind. i. 642. The small-pox was not introduced into Peru for several years after the invasion of the Spaniards, but prov

the latter, above two millions perished, acconti ing to an exact account taken by order of the

an intelligent person, who having been la settled on the Mosquito shore, has been ! kaged in the logwood trade, I find that genious anthor has been well informed. I Jogwood, cut near the town of St. Francisi Campeachy, is of much better quality than the on the other fide of Yucatan , and the Engli trade in the Bay of Honduras is almok ! an end.

NOTE XL. P. 263.

5. The

ed very fatal to the natives. Garcia Origen. p. 88.

2. The numbers who were killed, or died of famine in their war with the Spaniards, particularly during the siege of Mexico. 3. The great famine that followed after he reduction of Mexico, as all people engaged, either on one side or other, had neglected the cultivation of their lands. Something similar to this happened in all the other countries conquered by the Spaniards. 4. The grievous tasks imposed by the Spaniards upon the people belonging to their Repartimientos. oppressive burden of taxes which they were unable to pay, and from which they could, hope for no exemption. 6. The numbers employed in collecting the gold, carried down by the torrents from the mountains, who were forced from their own habitations, without any provision made for their subsistence, and subjected to all the rigour of cold in those elevated regions. 7. The immense labour of rebuilding Mexico, which Cortes urged on with such precipitate ardour, as destroyed an incredible number of people. 8. The number of people condemned to servitude, under various pretexts, and employed in working the silver mines. These marked by each proprietor with a hot iron like his cattle, were driven in herds to the mountains. The nature of the labour to which they were subjected there, the noxious va. pours of the mines, the coldness of the climate,

P. Torribio de Benevente, or Motolia has enumerated ten causes of the rapid dep pulation of Mexico, to which he gives name of the Ten Plagues. Many of thelet not peculiar to that province. 1. The for duction of the small-pox. This diseale vs firft brought into New Spain in the year 13 by a Degro slave who atteoted Narvaez. To ribio affirms, that one half of the people i the provinces, vifited with this diftemper, dis To this mortality, occafioned by the smal.por Torquemada adds the destructive effects of ten contagious diftempers which raged in the yeux 1545 and 1576. In the former 800,000;

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siceroys. Mon. Ind. i 642. The fmall-paj was not introduced into Peru for several years after the invafion of the Spaniards, but pror

and searcity of food, were fo fatal, that Torribio affirms, the country round several of those mines, particularly near Guaxago, was covered with dead bodies, the air corrupted with their stench, and so many vultures, and other voracious birds, hovered about for their prey , that the sun was darkened with their flighta 10. The Spaniards, in the different expeditions which they undertook; and by the civil wars which they carried on, destroyed many of the natives, whom they compelled to serve them as Tamemes, or carriers of burdens. This last mode of oppression was particularly ruinous to the Peruvians. From the number of Indians who perished in Gonzalo Pizarro's expedition into the countries to the east of the Andes, one may form fome idea of what they suffered in fimilar services, and how fast they were wait. ed by them. Torribio, MS. Corita in his Breve y Summaria Relacion, illustrates and con: firms several of Torribio's observations, to which he refers. MS. penes me.

NOTE XLI. p. 263.

Even Montesquieu has adopted this idea, lib. vui, c. 18. But the passion of that great man for system, fometimes rendered him inattentive to research; and from his capacity to refine, he was apt, in some instances, to overlook obyious and just causes, nipida.!'"

NOTE XLII, p. 264.

and fercity of food, were fo fatal

, tt Torribio atlirms, the country round several thole mines, particularly near Guasago ; Ft corered with dead bodies, the air correpes with their fte:żch, and so many vultures

, and other toracious birds, hovered about for their pre that the fun was darkened with their fift Io. The Spaniards, in the different expediti which they undertook, and by the civil wan which they carried on , deftrayed many of be natives, whom they compelled to serve the

A strong proof of this occurs in the testament of Ifabella, where she discovers the moft tender concern for the humane and mild usage of the Indians. Those laudable sentiments of the queen have been adopted into the publick law of Spain, and serve as the introduction to the regulatiðns contained under the title of the good treatment of the Indians, . Recopil. lib. vi. tit. X.

NOTE XLIII. p. 267.

as Tamemes, or carriers of burdens, This lá mode of oppression was particularly ruinous s the Peruvians. From the number of Indias who perished in Gonzalo Pizarro's expedition i to the countries to the east of the Andes, or may forın some idea of what they fulered Similar services, and how fast they ed by them. Torribio, MS. Corica in bil Breve y Summaria Relacion, illuftrates and cutfirms several of Torribio's observations, to which he refers. MS. penes me.

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In the seventh title of the first book of the Recopilacion, which contains the laws concerning the powers and functions of archbishops and bishops, almoft a third part of them relates to what is incumbent upon them, as guardians of the Indians, and points out the various methods in which it is their duty to interpose , in order to defend them from oppreffion, either with respect to their persons or property.

Not only do the laws commit to them this honourable and humane office, but they actually exercise it.

Innumerable proofs of this might be produced from Spanish authors. But I rather re:fer to Gage, as he was not disposed to ascribe any merit to the popish clergy, to which they were not fully entitled. Survey, p. 142. 192,

NOTE XLI. p. 263

Even Montesquieu has adopted this ide, hit rüic. 13. But the passion of that great mua for system, fometimes rendered him inattentive to research; and from his capacity to rebot he was apt, in some instances, to overlook of yious and just caules :

if

&c. Henry Hawks, an English merchant, who resided five years in New Spain, previous to the year 1572, gives the same favourable , account of the popish clergy, Hakluyt, iii. 466. By a law of Charles V. not only bishops, but other ecclesiasticks, are impowered to inform and admonish the civil magistrates,

any Indian is deprived of his just liberty and rights. Recopilac. lib. vi. tit. vi. ley 14; and thus were constituted legal protectors of the Indians. Some of the Spanish ecclefiafticks refused to grant abfolution to such of their countrymen as poflefled Encomiendas, and considered the Indians as flaves, or employed them in working their mines, Gonz. Davil. Teatro Ecclef. i. 157

NOTE XLIV. p. 267.

According to Gage, Chiapa dos Indos contains 4000 families, and he mentions it only as one of the largest Indian towns in America, p. 104.

NOTE XLV. p. 267.

It is very difficult to obtain an accurate account of the state of population in those kingdoms of Europe where the police is most perfect, and where fcience has made the greatest progress. In Spanish America, where know

ledge

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