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Tacocha, the eighth Inca, and declared, the he was a child of the Sun, that monarch baik a temple in honour of this person, and erecte! an image of him, resembling as dearly as pol f'e the fingular form in which he had exhibit ed himself to his view. In this temple, divine honours were paid to him, by the name of Vi racocha, P. i. lib. iv. c. 21. lib. v. c. 22. When the Spaniards first appeared in Peru, the length of their beards, and the dress they wore, fruck every person so much with their likeness to the image of Viracocha, that they supposed them to be children of the Sun, who had descended from heaven to earth. All conclnded, that the fatal period of the Peruvian empire was now approach ing, and that the throne would be occupied
to comprehend each other's intentions, the fatal rencounter at Caxamalca, with all its dreadful confequences, was occafioned.
It is remarkable, that no traces of this fuperftitious veneration of the Peruvians for the Spaniards, are to be found either in Xerez, or Sancho, or Zarate, previous to the interview at Caxamalea; and yet the two former served under Pizarro at that time, and the latter visited Peru foon after the conqueft. If either the Inca himfelf, or his messengers, had addressed the Spaniards in the words which Garcilaffo puts in their mouths, they must have been struck with such fubrniffive declarations; and they would certainly have availed themselves of them to accomplish their own designs with greater facility. Garcilaffo himself, though his narra. tive of the intercourse between the Inca and Spaniards, preceding the rencounter at Caxamalca, is founded on the supposition of his believing them to be Viracochas, or divine beings, P. ii. lib. i. c. 17, &c. yet with his usual inattention, and inaccuracy he admits, in another place, that the Peruvians did not recollect the resemblance between them and the god Viracocha, until the fatal disasters fubfequent to the defeat at Caxamalca, and then only began to call them Viracochas, P. i. lib. V. C. 21. This is confirmed by Herrera, dec. 5. lib. ii. c. 12. In many different parts of America, if we may believe
by Dew poflefiors. Atahualpa himself, confdering the Spaniards as messengers from heaven, was fo far from entertaining any thoughts of reliling them, that he determined to yield inplicit obedience to their commands. From those sentiments flowed his professions of love 2000 respect. To those were owing the cordial re. ception of Soto, and Ferdinand Pizarro in his camp, and the fubmillive reverence with which he himself advanced to visit the Spanish general in his quarters; but from the gross ignorance of Philippillo, the interpreter, the declaratian of the Spaniards, and his answer to it, were fo ill explained, that by their mutual inability
the Spanish writers, their countrymen were considered as divine beings who had descended from Heaven. But in this instance,
But in this inftance, as in many which occur in the intercourse between nations whose progress in refinements is very unequal, the ideas of those who used the expression were different from the ideas of those who heard it. For such is the idiom of the Indian languages, or such is the fimplicity of those who speak them, that when they see any thing with which they were formerly unacquainted, and of which they do not know the origin; they say, that it came down frow Heaven. Nugnez. Ram. iij. 327, C.
The account which I have given of the fentiments and proceedings of the Peruvians', appears to be more natural and copfiftent than either of the two preceding, and is better supported by the facts related by the contemporary hiftorians.
According to Xerez, p. 200, two thousand Peruvians were killed. Sancho makes the number of the slain fix or seven thousand. Ram. jii. 274, D. By Garcilaflo's account, five thousand were mafsacred.
P. ii, lib. i. c. 25. The number which I have mentioned, being the medium between the extremes, may probably be neareft the truth,
NOTE VIII. p. 33.
Nothing can be a more striking proof of this, than that three. Spaniards travelled from
According to Xeres, p. 200, two thor
the Spanish writers, their countrymen were considered as divine beings who had descended from Heaven. But in this inftance, as in mary which occur in the intercourse between nations whose progress in refinements is very unequal the ideas of those who used the expreffion were different from the ideas of those who beard it For such is the idiom of the Indian languages, or such is the fimplicity of those who speak then, that when they fee any thing with which they were formerly unacquainted, and of which they do not know the origin; they say, that it came down frow Heaven. Nugnez. Ram. iïi. 327,
Caxamalca 'to Cuzco. The distance betwixt them is fix hundred miles. In every place throughout this vast extent of country they were treated with all the hononis which the Peruvians paid to their sovereigns, and even to ther divinities. Under pretext of amaffing what was wanting for the ransom of the Inca, they demanded the plates of gold with which the walls of the Temple of the Sun in Cuzco were adorned; and though the priests were unwil. ling to alienate those sacred ornaments, and the people refused to violate the shrine of their God, the three Spaniards, with their own hands, robbed the Temple of part of this valuable treasure; and such was the reverence of the natives for their persons, that tbough they beheld this act of facrilege with astonishment, they did not attempt to prevent or disturb the commission of it. Zarate, lib. ii. c. 6. Sancho ap. Ramus. iii. 375, D.
C The account which I have given of the fentiments and proceedings of the Peruvians, ap. pears to be more natural and copliftent than either of the two preceding, and is better fapported by the facts related by the contemporary hiftorians.
NOTE IX. p. 47.
Sand Peruvians were killed. Sancho makes the
NOTE VIII. p. 33.
According to Herrera, the fpoil of Cuzco, after setting apart the king's fifth, was divided among 480 persons.
*Each received 4000 pesos.
This amounts to 1,920,000 pesos. Dec. 5. lib. vi. c. 3. But as the general, and other officers, were entitled to a part far greater than that of the private men, the fum total must have risen much beyond what I have mentioned.
Gomara, c. 123. and Zarate, lib. ii. c. 8. far,
NOTE X. p. 50.
No expedition in the New World was con, ducted with more persevering courage than that of Alvarado, and in none were greater hardships endured. Many of the persons engaged in it were, like their leader, veterans who had served under Cortes, inured to all the rigour of American war. Such of my readers as have not an opportunity of perusing the striking defcription of their sufferings by Zarate or Herrera, may form some idea of the nature of their march from the sea-coast to Quito, by consulting the account which D. Ant. Ulloa gives of his own journey in 1736, nearly in the same route. Voy. tom. i. p. 178, &c. or that of M. Bouguer, who proceeded from Puerto Viejo, to Quito, by the same road which Alvarado took. He compares his own journey with that of the Spanish leader, and by the comparison, gives a moft striking idea of the boldness and patience of Alvarado, in forcing his, way through so, many obstacles. Voyage du Perou, p. 28, etc.
NOTE XI. p. 51.
Gomara, c. 123. and Zarate, lib
. ii. c. 8. 6. tisíy themselves with affecting in general, tha the plander of Cazco was of greater value thu the radion of Atahualpa.
NOTE X. p. 50.
According to Herrera, there was entered on account of the king, in gold, 155,300 pe-, sos, and 5400 marks (each 8 ounces) of silver, besides several vefsels and ornaments, some of gold, and others of silver; on account of private persons , in gold 499,000 pesos, and 54,000 marks of silver. Dec. 5. lib. vi. C. IZ.
NOTE XII. p. 61: .
No expedition in the New World was condocted with more persevering courage
The Peruvians had recourse to other military arts than those of the Spaniards. As the calvalry were the chief object of their terror, they endeavoured to render them incapable of acting by means of a long thong with a stone fastened to each end. This, when thrown by a skilful hand, twisted about the horse and its rider, and entangled them so as to obftruct their motions. Herrera mentions this as an inyention of their own. Dec. 5. lib. viii, c. 4. But as I have observed, vol. ii. p. 175, this wea. pon is common among several barbarous tribes towards the extremity of South America; and it is more probable, that the Peruvians had obferved the dexterity with which they used it in hunting, and on this occasion adopted it themfelves. The Spaniards were considerably anpoyed by it. Herrera, ibid. Another instance of the ingenuity of the Peruvians deserves men