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at this island in the year 1685; and his accourit of the climate is not more favourable. Vol. i. p. 172. He, during his cruise on the coast, visited most of the places where Pizarro landed, and his defcription of them throws light on the narrations of the early Spanish historians:
NOTE IV. p. 25.
By this time horses had multiplied greatly in the Spanish settlements on the continent. When Cortes began his expedition in the year 1518, though his armament was more confider: able than that of Pizarro, and composed of persons fuperior in rank to those who invaded Peru, he could procure no more than sixteen horses.
NOTE V. p. 26.
In the year 1740, D. Ant. Ulloa, and D. George Juan, travelled from Guayquil to Motupe, by the same route which Pizarro took. From the description of their journey, one may form an idea of the difficulty of his march. The sandy plains between St. Michael de Pieura and Motupe extend go miles, without water, without a tree, a plant, or any green thing, on a dreary stretch of burning fand. Voyage, tom. i. p. 399, &c.
NOTE VI. p. 30.
This extrayagant and unreasonable discourse of Valverde has been censured by all historians, and with justice. But though he seems to have been an illiterate and bigoted monk, nowise resembling the good Olmedo, who accompanied Cortes; the absurdity of his address to Atahualpa must not be charged wholly upon him. His harangue is evidently a translation, or paraphrase of that form, concerted by a junto of Spanish divines and lawyers in the year 1509, for explaining the right of their king to the sovereignty of the New World, and for directing the officers employed in America how they should take poffeflion of any new country. See Vol. i. Note xxiii. The sentiments contained in Valverde's harangue must not then be imputed to the bigoted imbecillity of a particular man, but to that of the age. Gomara and Benzoni relate one circumstance concerning Valverde, which, if autentick, renders him an object, not of contempt only, but of horror. They affert, that during the whole action, Valverde continued to excite the foldiers to slaughter, calling to them to strike the enemy, not with the edge, but with the points of their swords. Gom. Cron. c. 113. Benz, Hiftor. Nov. Orbis, lib. iii. .C. 3. Such behaviour was very different from that of the Roman Catholick clergy in other parts of America, where they uniformly ex
erted their influence to protect the Indians, and to moderate the ferocity of their countrymen.
Note VII. p. 31.
Two different fyftems have been formed concerning the conduct of Atahualpa. The Spanish writers, in order to justify the violence of their countrymen, contend, that all the Inca's professions of friendship were feigned; and that his intention in agreeing to an interview with Pizarro at Caxamalca , was to cut off him and his followers at one blow; that for this purpose he advanced with such a numerous body of attendants, who had arms concealed under their garments to execute this scheme. This is the account given by Xeres and Zarate, and adopted by Herrera. But if it had been the plan of the Inca to destroy the Spaniards, one can hardly imagine that he would have permitted them to márch unmolested through the desert of Motupe, or have neglected to defend the paffes in the mountains, where they might have been attacked with so much advantage. If the Peruvians marched to Caxamaica with an intention to fall upon the Spaniards, it is inconceivable, that of so great a body of men, prepared for action, not one thould attempt to make resistance, but all tamely fuffer themselves to be butchered by an enemy whom they were
armed to attack. Atahualpa's mode of advancing to the interview, has the aspect of a peaceable proceffion, not of a military enterprize. He himself and his followers were, in their habits of ceremony, preceded, as on days of solemnity, by unarmed harbingers. Though rude nations are frequently cunning and false, yet, if a scheme of deception and treachery must be imputed either to a monarch, that had no great reason to be alarmed at a visit from strangers who solicited admission into his presence as friends, or to an adventurer fo daring, and so little fcrupulous as Pizarro, one cannot hefitate in determining where to fix the presumption of guilt. Even amidst the endeavours of the Spanish writers to palliate the proceedings of Pizarro, one plainly perceives, that it was his intention, as well as his interest, to seize the Inca, and that he had taken measures for that purpose previous to any suspicion of that monarch's designs.
Garcilaso de la Vega, extremely solicitous to vindicate his countrymen, the Peruvians, from the crime of having concerted the deftruction of Pizarro and his followers, and no less afraid to charge the Spaniards with improper conduct towards the Inca, has framed another system. He relates, , that a man of majestick form, with a long beard, and garments reaching to the ground, having appeared in vision to Vi
racocha, the eighth Inca, and declared , that
Atahualpa himself, confi-