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wards them a greater share of that capita

than would go to them of its own accord -, Such, in reality, is the absurd confidence

which all men have in their own good foto

fore his eyes, and he thinks, and speaks, di
dreams of nothing else. I)

Fatal effe&s of it

per channel.

Such is the spirit that muß be formed wherever the active exertions of any

focies
are chiefly employed in working mines of god
and filver. No spirit is more adverse to list
imr provement in agriculture and commerce, s
render a nation really opulent. If the fyker
of adminiftration in the Spanish colonies to
been founded upon principles of found polisi
the power and ingenuity of the legilor
would have been exerted with as much arów
in reftraining its subjects from such pernicios
indufry, as is now employed in alleine
them to wards it. Projects of mining "close
good judge of the political conduct of natur

inftead of replacing the capital employeds
them, together with the ordinary profit
ftocks, commonly abforb both capital sol
profit
. They are the projects, therefore

, which, of all others, 2 prudent lawgres » who desired to increase the capital of 10 ,, nation, would leaf chuse to give any ex traordinary encouragement, or to turas

tune, that wherever there is the least probability of success, too great a share of it

is apt to go to them of its own accord. "m) But in the Spanish colonies, government is ftudious to cherish a spirit which it should have laboured to depress, and, by the fanction of its approbation, augments that inconfiderate credulity, which has turned the active induftry of Mexico and Peru into such an impro

To this may be imputed the flender progress which Spanish America has made during two centuries and a half, either in useful manufactures, or in those lacrative branches of cultivation, which furnish the colonies of other nations with their staple commodities. In comparison with the precious, metals, every bounty of nature is so much despised, that this extravagant idea of their value has mingled with the idiom of language in America, and the Spaniards settled there denominate a country , rich, not from the fertility of its foil, the abundance of its crops, or the exuberance of its pastures, but on account of the minerals which its mountains contain. In quest of thefe, they abandon the dilightful plains of Peru and Mexico, and rem fort to barren and uncomfortable regions, where they have built some of the largeft towns which they poffets in the New World. As the activity and enterprise of the Spaniards ori

m) Dr, Smith's laquiry, &c. ii. 155...

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1) Lllox Entreten. P. 2231

ginally took this direction, it is now so difficult to bend them a different way, that although, from various causes, the gain of working mines is much decreased; the fascination continues, and almost every person, who takes any active part in the commerce of new Spain or Peru, is still engaged in some adyenture of this kind. n)

Other commodities of the Spanish colonies,

But though mines are the chief object of the Spaniards, and the precious metals which these yield, form the principal article in their commerce with America; the fertile countries which they possess there, abound with other commodities of such value or scarcity, as to attract a considerable degree of attention. Cochineal is a production almoft peculiar to New Spain, of such demand in commerce, that the fale is always certain, and it yields such profit, as amply rewards the labour and care employed in rearing the curious insects of which this valuable drug is composed, and preparing it for the market. Quinquina, or Jesuits Bark, the moft falutary fimple, perhaps, and of moit - restorative virtue, that Providence, in 'compassion for human infirmity, has made known unto man, is found only in Peru, to which it affords, a lucrative branch of commerce. indigo of Guatimala is superior in quality to

n) See, NOTE LXII..

The

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Rinally took this direction, it is now bi ficult to tend them a different way, thatı though, from various causes, the gain Workirg mines is much decreased; the falcie tion continues, and almost every person, st takes any active part in the commerce of me Spain or Peru, is ftill engaged in some adres ture of this kind. D)

Other (sinmodities of the Spanish colonies,

But though mines are the chief objekt the Spaniards, and the precious metals waxi these yield, form the principal article in të commerce with America; the fertile countia which they possess there, abound with other Commodities of fuch value or scarcity, 17 attract a considerable degree of attention

. O chineal is a production almoft peculiar to le Spain, of such demand in commerce, the # fale is always certain, and it yields such pri as amply rewards the labour and care emple ed in rearing the curious insects of which is valuable drug is composed, and preparing for the market. Quinquina, or Jefaits Burk

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the most falutary fimple, perhaps, and of mis

urto man, is found only in Peru, to which is

that of any province in America, and cultia vated to a considerable extent, Cacao, though not peculiar to the Spanish colonies, attains to its highest state of perfection there, and from the great consumption of chocolate in Europe, as well as in America, is a valuable commodity. The, Tobacco of Cuba, of more exquisite flavour than any brought from the New World; the sugar raised in that island, in Hispaniola, and in New Spain, together with drugs of various kinds, may be mentioned among the natural productions of America, which enrich the Spanish commerce. To, there must be added, an article of.no inconsiderable account, the exportation of hides, for which, as well as for many of those which I have enumerated, the Spaniards are more, indebted to the wonderful fertility of the country than to their own foresight and industry. The domestick animals of Europe, particularly horned cattle, have multiplied in the New World with a rapidity which almost exceeds belief. A few years after the Spaniards settled there, the herds of tame cattle became so numerous, that their proprietors reckoned them by thousands. o) Less attention being paid to them, as they continued to increase, they were suffered to run wild, and spreading over a country of boundlefs extent; under a mild climate, and covered with rich pasture, their number became im

6) Oviedo ap. Ramus. iii. 1.01, B. Hackluyt, iiie 460. 511.

refiorative virtue, that Providence, in circo
paslion for human infirmity, has made know?

afords a lucrative branch of commerce. Tk
indigo of Guatimala is superior in quality ti
a) Sec, NOTE LXII.

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mense. They range over the vast plains which extend from Buenos - Ayres, towards the Andes, in herds of thirty or forty thousand; and the unlucky traveller who once falls in among them, may proceed several days before he can disentangle himself from among the crowd that covers the face of the earth, and seems to have no end.

They are hardly less numerous in New Spain, and in several other provinces : these are killed merely for the fake of their hides; and the slaughter at certain seasons is so great, that the stench of the carcafes, which are left in the field, would infect the air, if large packs of wild dogs, and vast flocks of gallinazos, or American vultures, the most voracious of all the feathered kind, did not instantly devour them. The number of those hides exported in every fleet to Europe is prodigious, and is a lucrative branch of commerce.p)

Almoft all these may be considered as staple commodities peculiar to America ,

and different, if we except that last mentioned , from the productions of the mother-country.

Advaptages which Sprin derives from her colonies.

When the importation into Spain of those various articles from her colonies, first became active and confiderable, her interior induftry and

P) *Acofta , lib. iii. 6. 33. Ovallo Hift. of Chili. Church, Col.

le&. iii. 47. feq. Ibid. v. P. 680. 692. Lettres Edif. xiii. 235. Fouillé, i. 249.

dillerent, if we except that laft mentioned

large packs of wild dogs, and valt focksul

mense. They range over the vast plains whit extend from Buenos - Ayres, towards the des, in herds of thirty or forty thousand; a the unlucky traveller who once falls in an them, may proceed several days before be a disentangle himself from among the crowd dhe covers the face of the earth, and seems to ha Do end. They are hardly less numerons i New Spain, and in several other provinces thele are killed merely for the sake of the hides; and the Naughter at certain sealesi so great, that the stench of the carcafes, visi are left in the field, would infelt the air

, 1

Baltinazos, or American vultures, the more foracious of all the feathered kind, did on instantly devour them. The number of the hides exported in every fleet to Europe is po digious, and is a lucrative branch of commerce.

Almoft all these may be considered ftaple commodities peculiar to America, *

from the productions of the mother

country

,

Advantages which Spain derives from her colonies

.

When the importation into Spain of thola

P) Aeof, lib. jii. C. 33. Ovallo Hif. of Chili, Church,

Jed. m. 47. feq. Ibid. p. soso. 692. Lettres Eli

manufactures were in a state fo prosperous, that with the product of these she was able both to purchase the commodities of the New World, and to answer its growing demands. Under the seigns of Ferdinand and Isabella and Charles V. Spain was one of the most industrious countries in Europe.

Her manufactures in wool, and flax, and filk, were so extensive, as not only to furnish what was sufficient for her own consumption, but to afford a surplus for exportation. When a market for them, formerly unknown, and to which she alone had access, opened in America, she had recourse to her domestick store, and found there an abundant supply. q) This new employment must naturally have added vivacity to the spirit of industry. Nourished and invigorated by it, the manufactures, the population, and wealth of Spain might have gone on increasing in the same proportion with the growth of her colonies. Nor was the state of the Spanish marine at this period less flourishing than that of its manufactures, In the beginning of the sixteenth cen. tury, Spain is said to have pofseffed above a thousand merchant ships, r) a number probably far superior to that of any nation in Europe. By the aid which foreign trade and domestick industry give reciprocally to each other in their progress,

various articles from her colonies, firf became active and confiderable, her interior induftry and

q) See NOTE LXIII.

1) Campomanes , ii. 140.

xili. 235. Fouillé, i. 249.

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