of all appeared four hundred men, in an uniform
dress, as harbingers to clear the way before him.
He himself, sitting on a throne or couch, adorned
with plumes of various colours, and almost cover-
ed with plates of gold and silver enriched with
precious stones, was carried on the shoulders of
his principal attendants. Behind him came some
chief officers of, his court, carried in the same
manner. Several bands of fingers and dancers ac-
companied this cavalcade; and the whole plain,
was covered with troops, amounting to more than
thirty thousand men. . .
: Strange harangue of father Valverde.
I As the Inca drew near the Spanish quarters,
father Vincent Valverde, chaplain to the expedi-
tión, advanced with a crucifix in one hand, and a
breviary in the other, and in a long discourse ex-
plained to him the doctrine of the creation, the fall
of Adam, the incarnation, the sufferings and re-
furrection of Jesus Christ, the appointment of St.
Peter as God's vicegerent on earth, the transmis-
sion of his apoftolick power by succession to the
popes, the donation made to the king of Caftile by
pope Alexander of all the regions in the New
World. In consequence of all this, he required
Atahualpa to embrace the Christian faith, to ac-
knowledge the supreme jurisdiction of the popę,
and to submit to the king of Castile as his lawful,
sovereign; promising, if he complied instantly with
this requisition, that the Castilian monarch would
protect his dominions, and permit him to continue
in the exercise of his royal authority, but if he
should impiously refuse to obey this summons, he

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denounced war againft him in his maiter's name, and threatened hiin with the most dreadful effects of his vengeance.

Reply of the lucas This strange harangue, unfolding deep mylo teries, and alluding to unknown facts, of which no power of eloquence could have conveyed at once a distinct idea to an American, was fo lamely transi lated by an unskilful interpreter, little acquainted with the idiom of the Spanish tongue, and incapable of expressing himself with propriety in the language of the Inca, that its general tenor was altogether incomprehensible to Atahualpa. Some parts in it, of more obvious meaning, filled him with astonishment and indignation. His reply, however, was temperate. He began with obsery ing, that he was lord of the dominions over which he reigned by hereditary succession; and added, that he could not conceive how a foreign priest should pretend to dispose of territories which did not belong to him; that if such a preposterous grant had been made, he, who was the rightful poffeffor, refused to confirm it; that he had no inclination to renounce the religious inftitutions established by his ancestors; nor would he forsake the service of the Sun, the immortal divinity whom he and his people revered, in order to worship the God of the Spaniards, who was subject to death; that with respect to other matters contained in his discourse, as he had never heard of them before, and did not now understand their meaning, he desired to know where the priest had learned things so extraordinary. „In this book,

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answered Valverde, reaching out to him his breviary. The Incà opened it eagerly, and turning over the leaves, lifted it to his ear: „This," says he, „is filent; it tells me nothing; "and threw it with disdain to the ground. The enraged monk, running towards hủs countrymen, cried out. „, To arms, Christians, to arms; the word of God is in. sulted; avenge this profanation on those inpious dogs." b)

Pizarro a't cks the Peruvians, and seizes the Inca.

Pizarro, who, during this long conference, had with difficulty restrained his soldiers, eager to seize the rich spoils of which they had now so near a view, immediately gave the signal of assault. At once the martial musick struck up, the cannon and muskets began to fire, the horse fallied out fiercely to the charge,the infantryrushed on,sword in hand. The Peruvians, astonished at the suddenpess of an attack which they did not expect, and dismayed with the destructive effects of the firearms, and the irresistible impression of the cavalry, fled with universal consternation on every side, without attempting either to annoy the enemy, or to defend themselves. Pizarro, at the head of his chofen band, advanced directly towards the Inca; and though his nobles crowded around him with officious zeal, and fell in numbers at his feet, while they vied one with another in facrificing their own lives, that they might cover the sacred person of their sovereign , the Spaniards foon penetrated to the royal seat; and Pizarro seizing the Inca by the arm, dragged him to the ground, and carried

b) See NOTE VI.

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him as a prisoner to his quarters. The fate of the monarch increased the precipitate flight of his followers. The Spaniards pursued them towards every quarter, and with deliberate and unrelenta ing barbarity continued to flaughter wretched fugitives, who never once offered to refift. The carnage did not ceafe until the close of day. Above four thousand Peruvians were killed. Not a single Spaniard fell, nor was one wounded but Pizarro himself, whose hand was slightly hurt by one of his own soldiers, while struggling eagerly to lay hold on the Inca.

The plunder of the field was rich beyond any idea which the Spaniards had yet formed concerning the wealth of Peru, and they were so tranfported with the value of the acquisition, as well as the greatness of their success, that they passed the night in the extrayagant exultation natural to indigent adventurers on such an extraordinary change of fortune.

Deje&ion of the Inca. At first the captive monarch could hardly believe a calamity which he so little expected to be real. But he foon felt all the misery of his fate, and the dejection into which he sunk was in proportion to the height of grandeur from which he had fallen. Pizarro, afraid of losing all the advantages which he hoped to derive from the pofleffion of such a prisoner, laboured to console him with professions of kindness and respect, that correfponded ill with his actions. By residing among the Spaniards, the Inca quickly discovered their

6) See NOTE VII.

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ruling passion, which, indeed, they were nowife folicitous to conceal, and by applying to that, made an attempt to recover his liberty.

His offer of a rapsom;

He offered as a ransom what astonished the Spaniads, even after all they now knew concerning the opulence of his kingdom. The aparta, ment in which he was confined was twenty-two feet in length and fixteen in breadth; he undera took to fill it with vessels of gold.as high as he could reach. Pizarro closed eagerly with this tempting propofal, and a line was drawn upon the walls of the chamber; to mark the stipulated height to which the treasure was to rise.

Atahualpa, transported with having obtained fome prospect of liberty, took measures instantly for fulfilling his part of the agreement, by sending messengers to Cuzco, Quito, and other places, where gold had been amassed in largest quantities, either for adorning the temples of their gods, or the houses of the Inca, to bring what was necessary for completing his ransom directly to Caxamalca. Though Atahualpa was now in the custody of his enemies, yet so much were the Peruvians accustomed to respect every mandate issued by their sovereign, that ,his. orders were executed with the greasted alacrity. Soothed with hopes of recovering his liberty by this means, the subjects of the Inca



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