ment. Manco Capac instructed the men in agricul.. ture, and other useful arts. Mama Ocollo taught the women to spin and to weave. By the labour of the one sex, subsistence became less precarious; by that of the other, life was rendered more confortable. After securing the objects of first neceffity in an infant ftate, by providing food, raiment, and inhabitations, for the rude people of whom he took charge, Manco Capac turned his attention towards introducing such laws and policy as might perpetuate their happiness. By his institutions, which shall be more particularly explained hereafter, the various relations in private life were established, and the duties resulting from them prescribed with such propriety, as gradually formed a barbarous people to decency of manners. In publick administration, the functions of persons in authority were so precisely defined, and the subordination of those under their jurisdiction maintained with such a steady hand, that the fociety in which he presided, foon afiumed the aspect of a regular and well governed state.

Thus, according to the Indian tradition, was founded the empire of the Incas or Lords of Peru. At first, its extent was small. The territory of Manco Capac did not reach above eight leagues from Cuzco. But within its narrow precincts he' exercised absolute and uncontrolled authority. His successors, as their dominions expanded, arrugated a similar jurisdiction over their subjects: the despotism of Asia was not more complete. The Incas were not only obeyed as monarchs, but revered as divinities. Their blood was held to be

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facred, and, by prohibiting intermarriages with
the people, was never contaminated by mixing
with that of any other race. The family, thus se-
parated from the rest of the nation, was distin
guished by peculiarities in dress and ornaments,
which it was unlawful for others to affume. The
monarch himself appeared with ensigns of royalty
reserved for him alone; and received from his sub-
jects marks, of obsequious homage and respect,
which approached almost to adoration.

But, among the Peruvians, this unbounded
power of their monarchs seems to have been uni-
formly accompanied with attention to the good
of their subjects. It was not the rage of conquest,
if we may believe the accounts of their country-
men, that prompted the Incas to extent their do-
minions, but the desire of diffusing the blessings
of civilization, and the knowledge of the arts
which they pofseffed, awong the barbarous people
whom they reduced. During a succession of twelve
monarchs, it is said that not one deviated from
this beneficent character, t)

When the Spaniards first visited the coast of Peru, in the year one thousand five hundred and twenty fix, Huana Capac, the twelfth monarch from the founder of the state, was feated on the throne. He is represented as a prince distinguished not only for the pacifick virtues peculiar to the race, but eminení for his martial talents. By his victorious arms the kingdom of Quito was subjected, a cono

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c) Cieca de Leon, Chron. 6. 4.4 Herrera, dec, 3. lib. x.

C. 4. dec. 5. lib, iii, c. 17.

quest of such exterit and importance as, almost doubled the power of the Peruvian empire. He was fond of residing in the capital of that valuable province, which he had added to his dominions; and, notwithstanding the ancient and fundamental law of the monarchy against polluting the royal blood by any foreign alliance, he married the daughter of the vanquished monarch of Quito. She bore him a son named Atahualpa, whom, on his death at Quito, which seems to have happened about the year one thousand five hundred and twenty-nine, he appointed his successor in that kingdom, leaving the rest of his dominions to

Huascar, his eldest son, by a mother of the - royal race. Greatly as the Peruvians revered the

memory of a monarch who had reigned with more | reputation and fplendour than any of his prede

ceffors, the destination of Huana Capac concerning the succession, appeared fo repugnant to a maxim coeval with the empire, and founded on authority deemed sacred, that it was no sooner known at Cuzco than it excited general disgust. Encouraged by those sentiments of his subjects, Huascar required his brother to renounce the goyernment of Quito, and to acknowledge him as his lawful superior. But it had been the first care of Atahualpa to gain a large body of troops which had accompanied his father to Quito. These were the flower of the Peruvian warriors, to whose valour Huana Capac had been indebted for all his victories. Relying on their support, Atahunlpa first eluded his brother's demand, and then marched against him in 'hostile array.

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Thus the ambition of two young men, the title of the one founded on ancient usage, and that of the other asserted by the veteran troops, involved Peru in civil war, a calamity to which, under a succession of virtuous princes, it had hitherto been a stranger. In such a contest the issue was obvious. The force of arms triumphed over the authority of laws. Atahualpa remained victorious, and made a cruel use of his victory. Confcious of the defect in his own title to the crown, he attempted to exterminate the royal race, by putting to death all the children of the Sun defcended from Manco Capac, whom he could seize either by force or stratagem. From a political motive, the life of his unfortunate rival Huascar, who had been taken prisoner in the battle which decided the fate of the empire, was prolonged for some time, that, by ifsuing orders in his name, the usurper might more easily establish his own authority, u)

Favourable to the progress of Pizarro, When Pizarro landed in the bay of St. Matthew, this civil war raged between the two brothers in its greatest fury. Had he made any hostile attempt in his former visit to Peru in the year one thousand five hundred and twenty-seven, he must then have encountered the force of a powerful ftate, united under a monarch, pofsefsod of capa. city as well as courage, and unembarrassed with any care that could divert him from opposing his progress. But at this time, the two competitors,


a) Zarato , lib. i. c. 15. Vega, 1. lib. ix. c. 12 and 32-40.

Herrera, dec. 5. lib. i. 6. 2. lib, iij. 6. 17.

though they received early accounts of the arrival and violent proceedings of the Spaniards, were so intent upon the operations of a war, which they deemed more interesting, that they paid no attention to the motions of an enemy, too inconfi. derable in number to excite any great alarm, and to whose career, it would be eafy, as they imagined, to give a check when more at leisure.

. He avails himself of it, and advances,

By this fortunate coincidence of events,where. of Pizarro could have no foresight, and of which, from his defective mode of intercourse with the people of the country, he remained long ignorant, he was permitted to carry on his operations unmolested, and advanced to the centre of a great empire before one effort of its power was exerted to stop his career. During their progress, the Spaniards had acquired some imperfect knowledge of this struggle between the two contending factions. The first complete information, with respect to it, they received from messengers whom Huascar sent to Pizarro, in order to solicit his aid against Atahualpa, whom he represented as a rebel and an usurper. u) Pizarro perceived at once the importance of this intelligence, and fore: saw so clearly all the advantages which might be derived from this divided state of the kingdom, which he had invaded, that, without waiting for the reinforcement which he expected from Panama, he determined to push forward, while intestine discord put it out of the power of the Peruvians to attack him with their whole force, and while, by

u) ?arate , lib. ii. c. 3.

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