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fpired them with such ideas of their own fum periority, that Pizarro did not hesitate to fail ( February 1531.) with this contemptible force to invade a great empire. 'Almagro was left at Panama, as formerly, to follow him with what reinforcement of men he should be able to mufter. As the season for embarking was properly chosen, and the course of navigation between Panama and Peru was now better known, Pizarro completed the voyage in thirteen days; though, by the force of the winds and currents, he was carried above a hundred leagues to the north of Tumbez, the place of his destination, and obliged to land his troops in the bay of St. Matthew.

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Lands in Peru.

Without losing a moment, he began to advance towards the south, taking care, however, not to depart far from the sea-shore, both that he might easily effect a junction with the fupplies which he expected from Panama, and fem cure a retreat in case of any disaster, by keeping as near as possible to his ships. But as the country in several parts on the coast of Peru is barren, unhealthful, and thinly peopled; as the Spaniards had to pass all the rivers near their mouth, where the body of water is greatest; and as the imprudence of Pizarro, in attacking the natives when he should have studied to gain their confidence, had forced them to abandon their habitations; famine, fatigue, and diseases

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of various kinds, brought upon him and his fol-
lowers calamities hardly inferior to those which
they had endured in their former expedition,
What they now experienced corresponded so ill
with the alluring description of the country
given by Pizarro, that many began to reproach
him, and every soldier must have become cold
to the service, if, even in this unfertile region
of Perù, they had not met with some appear-
ances of wealth and cultivation, which seemed
to justify the report of their leader. At length
they reached (April 14. 1531 ) the province
of Coaque; and, having surprised the principal
settlement of the natives, they feized there
veffels and ornaments of gold and silver, to the
amount of thirty thousand pesos, with other
booty of such value, as dispelled all their doubts,
and inspired the most defponding with fanguine
hopes. r)

His measures for obtaining a reinforcement.
Pizarro himself was so much delighted with
this rich spoil, which he considered as the first
fruits of a land abounding with treasure, that he
instantly dispatched one of his ships to Panama
with a large remittance to Almagro; and another
to Nicaragua with a confiderable sum to some per-
fons of influence in that province, in hopes of al-
luring adventurers, by this early display of the
wealth which he had acquired. Meanwhile, he
continued his march along the coast, and disdain-
ing to employ any means of reducing the natives

r) Herrera, dec. 4. lib. vii, s. 7. lib, ii6. I. Xeres 18%

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but force, he attacked them with such violence in their scattered habitations, as compelled them either to retire into the interior country, or to fübw! mit to his yoke. This sudden appearance of invaders, whose aspect and manners were fo ftrange, and whose power seemed to be so irresistible, made the same dreadful impreflion as in other parts of America. Pizarro hardly met with refiftance until he attacked the island of Pana in the bay of Guayquil. As that was better peopled than the country through which he had passed, and its inhabitants fiercer and less civilized than those of the con. tinent, they defended themselves with such obt stinate valour, that Pizarro spent fix months in reducing them to subjection. From Puna he proceeded to Tumbez, where the distempers which raged among his men compelled him to remain for three months. s)

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Receives fome, and continues to advances

While he was thus employed, he began to reap advantage from his attention, to spread the fame of his first success at Coaque. Two different detachments arrived from Nicaragua, which, though neither exceeded thirty men, he considered as a reinforcement of great consequence to his feeble band, especially as the one was ún. der the command of Sebastian Benalcazar, and the other of Hernando Soto, officers not infe. rior in merit and reputation to any who had served s) P, Sancho ap, Ramuf. iii. p. 371; F; Herrera, der. 4. lib.

vii. c. 18. lib. ix, c, I. Zarate, lib. ii. c. 2, 3. Xores P, 182, &

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in America. From Tumbez he proceeded ( May 16. 1532.) to .the river Piura, and in an advantageous station near the mouth of it, he eftablished the first Spanish colony in Peru; to which he gave the name of St. Michael.

As Pizarro cantinued to advance towards the centre of the Peruvian empire, he gradually received more full information concerning its extent: and policy, as well as the fituation of its affairs at that juncture. Without some knowledge of these, he could not have conducted his operations withi propriety; and without a suitable attention to them, it is impossible to account for the progress which the Spaniards had already made, or to unfold the causes of their subsequent success.

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At the time when the Spaniards invaded Feru, the dominions of its sovereigns extended in length, from north to fouth, above fifteen hundred miles along the Pacifick Ocean. Its breadth, from east to west, was much less confiderable; being uniformly bounded by the vast ridge of the Andes, stretching from its one extremity to the other. Peru, like the reft of the New World, was originally poffessed by small independent tribes, differing from each other in manners, and in their forms of rude policy: All, however, were so little civilized, that, if the traditions concerning their mode of life, preserved among their descendants, deserve credit, they

must

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men,

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must be classed among the most unimproved savages

of America. Strangers to every species of cultivation or regular industry, without any fixed residence, and unacquainted with those fentiments and obligations which form the first bonds of focial union, they are said to have roamed about naked in the forests, with which the country was then covered, more like wild beasts than like

After they had struggled for several ages with the hardships and calamities which are inevitable in this barbarous state, and when circumftance seemed to indicate the approach of any uncommon effort towards improvement, we are told that there appeared on the bank of the lake Titiaca, a man and woman of majestick form, and clothed in decent garments. They declared themselves to be children of the Sun, sent by their beneficent parent, who beheld with pity the miseries of the human race, to instruct and to reclaim them. At their periuasion, enforced by reverence for the divinity in whose name they were suppored to speak, several of the dispersed favages 'united together, and receiving their commands as heavenly injunctions, followed them to Cuzco, where they settled, and began to lay the foundations of a city.

Manco Capac and Mama Ocollo, for such were the names of those extraordinary personages, having thus collected fome wandering tribes, formed that social union, which, by multiplying the desires. and uniting the efforts of the human fpecies, excites industry, and leads to improve

ROBERTSON Vol. III. B

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