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that he must either boldly aim at all, or attempt nothing. From the time that Pizarro obtained possession of the government of Peru, he inculcated the same maxim with greater. earneftness. Upon receiving an account of the victory at Quito, he remonstrated with him in a tone ftill more peremptory. „ You have usurped (said he, in a letter written to Pizarro on that occasion, the supreme power in this country, in contempt of the emperor's commission to the viceroy. You have marcheed, in hostile array, against the royal standard; you have attacked the representative of your sovereign in the field, have defeated him, and cut off his head. Think not that ever a monarch will forgive such insults on his dignity, or that any reconciliation with him can be cordial or fincere. Depend no longer on the precarious favour of another. Afsume yourself the fovereignty over a country, to the dominion of which your family has a title founded on the rights both of discovery and conquest. It is in your power to attach every Spaniard in Peru of any consequence inviolably to your interest by liberal grants of lands and of India ans, or by inftituting ranks of nobility, and creating titles of honour fimilar to those which are courted with so much eagerness in Europe. By establishing orders of knighthood, with privileges and distinctions resembling those in Spain, you may bestow a gratification upon the offi

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cers in your service , fuited to the ideas of mi, litary men. Nor is it to your countrymen only that you ought to attend; endeavour to gain the natives. By marrying the Coya, or daughter of the Sun next in succession to the crown, you will induce the Indians , out of veneration for the blood of their ancient princes, to unite with the Spaniards in support of your authority. Thus, at the head of the ancient inhabitants of Peru, as well as of the new settlers there, you may set at defiance the power of Spain, and repel with ease any feeble force which it can send at such a distance. “ Cepeda, the lawyer, who was now Pizarro's confidential counsellor, warmly seconded Carvajal's ex, hortations, and employed whatever learning he possessed in demonstrating, that all the founders of great monarchies had been raised to, pre - eminence, not by the antiquity of their lineage, or the validity of their rights, but by their own aspiring valour and personal merit, z)

But chufes to negociate with the court of. Spain.

Pizarro listened attentively to both, and could not conceal the satisfaction with which he contemplated the object that they presented to his view. But happily for the tranquillity of the world, few men possess that superior strength of mind, and extent of abilities, which are

2) Vega, p. II. lib. iv. c. 40. Fernandez, lib. i. c. 34.

lib. ii. c. I. 49. Herrera, dec, 8. lib. ii. c. 10.

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capable of forming and executing such daring schemes, as cannot be accomplished without overturning the established order of fociety, and violating those maxims of duty which men are accustomed to hold sacred. The mediocrity of Pizarro's talents circumscribed his ambition within more narrow limits. Inftead of aspiring at independent power, he confined his views to the obtaining from the court of Spain a confirmation of the authority which he now poffefsed; and for that purpose, he sent an officer of distinction thither, to give such a representation of his conduct, and of the state of the country, as might induce the emperor and his minifters, either from inclination or from necessity, to continue him in his present station.

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Consultations of the Spanish ministers.

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While Pizarro was deliberating with refpect to the part which he should take, consultations were held in Spain, with no less folia citude, concerning the measures which ought to be pursued in order to reestablish the emperor's authority in Peru. Though unacquainted with the last exceffes of outrage to which the malcontents had proceeded there, the court had received an account of the insurrection against the viceroy, of his imprisonment, and the usurpation of the government by Pizarro. A revolution fo alarming called for an immediate interposition of the emperor's abilities

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and authority. But as he was fully occupied at that time in Germany, in conducting the war against the famous league of Smalkalde, one of the most interesting and arduous enterprises in his reign, the care of providing a remedy for the disorders in Peru devolved upon his son Philip, and the counsellors whom Charles had appointed to allilt him in the government of Spain during his absence. At first view, the actions of Pizarro and his adherents appeared so repugnant to the duty of subjects towards their sovereign, that the greater part of the ministers insisted on declaring them instantly to be guilty of rebellion, and on proceeding to punish them with exemplary rigour. But when the fervour of their zeal and indignation began to abate, innumerable obstacles to the execution of this measure presented themselves. The veteran bands of infantry, the strength and glory of the Spanish armies, were then employed in Germany. Spain, exhausted of men and money by a long series of wars, in which she had been involved by the restless ambition of two fucceffive monarchs, could not easily equip an armament of fufficient force to reduce Pizarro. To transport any respectable body of troops to a country so remote as Peru, appeared almoft impossible. While Pizarro continued matter of the South-Sea, the direct route by Nombre de Dios and Panama was impracticable. An attempt to march to Quito by

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land through the new kingdom of Granada, and the province of Popayan, across regions of vast extent, defolate, unhealthy, or inhabited by fierce and hostile tribes, would be attended with unsurmountable danger and hardships. The paslage to the South-Sea by the Straits of Magellan was so tedious, so uncertain, and so little known in that age, that no confidence could be placed in any effort carried on in a course of navigation fo remote and precarious. Nothing then remained but to relinquisi the fyftem which the ardour of their loyalty had firit suggested, and to attempt by lenient measures what could not be effected by force. It was manifest, from Pizarro's folicitude to represent his conduct in a favourable light to the emperor, that, notwithstanding the excefles of which he had been guilty, he still retained sentiments of veneration for his fovereign. By a proper application to these, together with some fuch conceflions as should discover a spirit of moderation and forbearance in government, he might be yet reclaimed or the ideas of loyalty natural to Spaniards might fo far revive among his followers, that they would no longer lend their aid to uphold his usurped authority.

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Gasca appointed to repair to Peru as prefident,

The fuccefs, however, of this negociation no less delicate than it was important, depende

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